1250-1050 BC -- An Example of an Historical Cycle
and the Renewal of Wilderness

Henry David Thoreau

George Santayana

Keywords: History, 13th-11th Centuries BC, global catastrophes, ancient authors, religion, mythology, Gaia theory, coming Earth changes, new millennium, natural disasters, history, 13th, 12th, and 11th centuries BC, global catastrophes, Bible, Papyrus Impuwer, Medinet Habu Tablets, Homer, Illiad, Odyssey, Hinduism, Roman, Greek, Pyramid texts, Mycenaean, Indus, China, Near East, Mideast, Asia, America, Sea People, weather, climate

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. This is basically an excerpt from the book, In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About, which is supported by scholarly references, historical writings, mythology, religious scriptures and more. Because this book is published the full scope and references could not be presented at present, but may be made available at a later date. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered.

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1250 to 1050 BC -- Purifying Fires and an Exodus of Enormous Proportions


The Mycenaean civilization of the Ancient Greeks had reached its height in the second half of the 14th Century BC and was ripe for the return of wilderness. A century later, signs of its crumbling into decadence mark a very obscure period in Ancient Greek history. Reasons for the decline are not known though some have discussed the possibility that the Trojan War was responsible, while others claim the "Sea Peoples" came in devastating attacks throughout the Mediterranean region.

Information gotten through archeological investigation indicates that more than the Trojan War and the attacks of the Sea Peoples occurred. Evidence at Mycenae itself discloses that the suburbs outside the fortified palace were raided before the close of the 13th Century BC (see Plate 13). All the Mycenaean palaces, except the acropolis of Athens, were thrown down at that time. Yet a half century later, Mycenae was to be hit a second time!

Aegean scripts used in continental Greece and at Crete fell into everlasting oblivion. This is the only known case in all of history in which an entire written language was lost forever. There are many cases of exchanging one script for another, but the loss of literacy itself testifies to the extent of the devastation that struck. In fact, the entire framework of this society and its civilization had collapsed so much that the mason's craft was no longer in use, lamps ceased to be manufactured, gold disappeared, and even the elaborate style of dress they had borrowed from their Minoan neighbors was abandoned. Mycenae was hit hard and its cities pulverized, but the extent of the devastation and other factors indicate it was not solely by invading people.

Widespread impoverishment and a precipitous decline in population is demonstrated by the marked decrease in the number of settlements in the 12th Century BC. There were 320 settlements in Greece in the 13th Century of which forty were densely populated. However, after the collapse, the settlements that had survived shrunk to a hundredth of what they had been only a century before. Furthermore, it was only a sparse and miserable resettlement that was found in the archeological record. For example, Messene and Triphylia had 150 known settlements in the 13th Century BC, but only fourteen survived into the 12th Century BC. Furthermore, there was the loss of crafts, language and a significant portion of the population. The evidence suggests that the whole period was one of great unrest, punctuated by "disaster horizons." This period of havoc was one in which important sites were brought to ashes by fire and others were totally abandoned. Some evidence indicates drought as one of the precipitating factors, but such an explanation lacks a full scope. Greek history had embarked on a two-century journey through a truly "Dark Age."

How Mycenae, encompassing an area between Italy and the Black Sea, had come to such a devastated condition is indeed a mystery. There is no conclusive evidence that the devastated areas were occupied by the supposed devastators; if it were the Sea Peoples, they moved on. The southern part of Peloponnesus (the peninsula of mainland Greece) was virtually deserted for the 12th and 11th Centuries BC.

Our knowledge of the Sea Peoples is obtained from Egyptian sources. The details, however, demonstrated that the Sea Peoples attempted a migration, for they brought with them their cattle, their movable property, and even their wives and children. If the Sea People had been the reason for the devastated Mycenaean civilization, why did they then leave it deserted? Obviously, they were looking for a home. Likewise, surviving inhabitants of the ruined and depopulated areas show the characteristics of Mycenaean culture, though in a degenerate form, not the supposed invaders' cultural characteristics.

In addition, the Sea People had certainly been weakened and lessened in number by their attempted entries into Egypt. Their first attempt was in 1220 BC, but they were repulsed and defeated by the forces of Pharaoh Merneptah (ruled 1224-1214 BC). Later, during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses III (1198-1167 BC) they again attempted their migration. Both Mycenae and the Sea People had been, it seems, routed from their former place by the same event(s).

Many facets of Homer's epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey , have been proven genuine by excavation, and they lend some insight to the events that struck Mycenae. In fact, it was childhood memories of his father's reading of the Iliad that led a certain archeologist to the discovery of Troy (in modern-day Turkey). This city, one of six in the same spot to be leveled to the ground, was struck by an earthquake that was accompanied by several fires. Shortly after this Troy was rebuilt, with huts crowded against the ramparts as if there had been a great influx of population from elsewhere. Then the city was devoured by the Trojans in war and finally by fire; the human remains indicate battle and sudden death. In the fifth book of the Iliad one can find, in addition to a description of a battle with the Trojans, the following:

"Then terribly thundered the father of gods and men from on high; and from beneath did Poseidon cause the vast Earth to quake, and the steep crests of the mountains. [A thick mist spread and a huge river overflowed] with surging flood, and roused all his streams tumultuously. The lighting of the Great Zeus [caused a] wondrous blazing fire. First on the plain was the fire kindled, and burned the dead, and all the plain was parched."

Every aspect of this description has been proven archeologically. The Great Zeus is the planet Jupiter, which is an understanding that is supported by Greek mythology (this will be discussed in Tome Seven). Homer tells us that Jupiter struck the Earth with a huge lightning bolt. Descriptions of this event seem to reach far beyond the boundaries of Mycenae and Troy. The first attempt of the Sea People to enter Egypt (1220 BC) was the year in which Thera, the volcano of the island of Anaphe, erupted. This eruption "produced such an enormous wave that the flood reached the capital (Knossos, on Crete) 8 km. [5 mi.] inland and 40 m. [131 ft.] above sea-level and destroyed it."

As in the previous period, Crete was demolished with such force that a geologist of the University of Salonica, Greece, found a layer of lava 5 meters (16.5 feet) thick and 250 meters (820 feet) above sea level, washed up into a "frozen" wave. The scene was one that could be described as lava flowing that was suddenly pushed back, and frozen by an extremely powerful series of tidal waves (tsunamis). The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute says that there were "three great waves each having a height at sea of 200 feet just before crushing on the Cretan shore."

Apolloduros, a Greek author of the 2nd Century BC, recounts the event which, as with Crete, struck Mycenae: "Poseidon in his rage let monstrous masses of water overwhelm the land; the Thrisassio plain was drowned and Attica sank beneath the sea.". All things considered, Homer, Apolloduros, and the archeological and geological evidence all paint the same picture.

A physicist that studies earthquakes has another interpretation of what else took place. He sees a swarm of earthquakes taking place over 50 years, around 1200 BC, and sweeping areas from southern Italy to central Turkey. It was not just the earthquakes that were responsible, but that "the earthquakes provided the vulnerability of these economic and military centers to attack."

Elsewhere in Europe

Similar events seem to stretch throughout Europe and into the region of the North Sea. Over 400 pile (lake) dwellings in Europe were overwhelmed so quickly that bronze weapons, jewelry, cooking pots, and other objects of daily use were found in the lake bed. The scene seems to suggest that sudden and simultaneous flood waves occurred in the lakes, and were of the kind that only occur after the most violent earthquakes.

One geologist found many places from North Jutland to Dithmarschen, in the area of the North Sea, with traces of a great flood that overwhelmed islands and coastal lands: "If we compare the results of these observations, we have to conclude that a flood coming from the west once broke over these coasts, far surpassing in height and extent any other known to history." As a result, a village now rests five meters (16.5 feet) below the surface of Lake Bolsena. Italian Department of Antiquities authorities say that it was smashed by a severe earthquake that caused a violent "tidal" wave to wash over the village, leaving only the walls of the huts. Its full extent is suggested by the Umbrians' history, who are not native to Italy, but legend says that they were driven from their homeland by a terrible flood. These are but a few examples of civilizations dissolved away as a result of floods and gargantuan earthquakes, which seem to dominate the scene of this time period.

The island of Cyprus in the Mediterranean has its own story to tell, which has been revealed by the layers of its archeological remains. Citium, an inner harbor, was struck by an earthquake that led to the silting up of the river. Salamis, now a forest of Mimosas and Eucalyptus, was moved to the north after its harbor became silted up due to a disaster that struck its neighbor, Enkomi. An earthquake evidently hit Enkomi, though some attribute its waste to the Sea People.

The north of Europe was densely populated before this period of upheaval began. However, it lost most of its population in the 13th Century BC. The archeological evidence indicates an almost total lack of finds on the Danish islands and the Scandinavian mainland. Furthermore, this situation lasts for 350 years, and was the result of widespread forces unleashed against civilization. Archeologists and historians see the events culminating in a mass migration away from the region.

Geologists' observations in a number of areas indicate that a huge wave overcame Europe. The West Coast of Germany was flooded by such an enormous wave that banks of silt were created that today stretch 25 kilometers (15.5 miles) and up to 10 meters high (35 feet), even after more than 3,000 years of weathering. On the south coast of the North Sea another excavation disclosed what remained of a "catastrophe of annihilating force": "With all its violent power, the North Sea [struck so hard] that trees were laid flat by the first rush of the water. The tops of these uprooted trees always point to the east, which supports the assumption that the catastrophe was caused by a storm from the west."

Also about 2.5 meters (8.2 feet) below the waves near the island of Memmert, ancient dryland was discovered. There, underwater, and in addition to other things, "the hoof marks of cattle and horses were also visible and wagon tracks [were] clearly marked in the soil." Certainly, these had been covered quickly or they would not have lasted, which suggests more than merely "a storm." This event was one of the factors that sent masses of people (including the Sea People) migrating, or more accurately, fleeing for their lives.

The story throughout the remainder of Europe is all too familiar when compared with the evidence from elsewhere. In Hungary the existing population either completely died out or moved to some unknown location(s), leaving the area behind for the fundamental, even ethnic changes that occurred with the newcomers, the Urnfield culture. Etna, a volcano in Northeastern Sicily, erupted three times during this period. Thapsos, a promontory, once an island near Syracuse in Sicily, has virtually nothing left of the village that was brought to ruin there. In Central Europe the Tumulus culture, too, filled the pages of its final chapter. The last remains of Stonehenge, enfeebled by the previous cycle, was no match for what this cycle brought upon them, as they passed from history. Spain, France, Portugal and a number of islands were not immune, as elsewhere, to the necessity of wildlife's reestablishment.

Near East

In the previous cycle, the Old Hittite Kingdom had been so devastated that it took a century for the New Kingdom to merely surface again. Here, as in nearby Troy, is the evidence of a vast, intense fire that brought about its sudden end. It has been theorized that this devastation was done by the Sea Peoples, yet the newcomers to the area were people known to the Greeks as Phrygians. Another group, known to the Assyrians as Mushki, joined them later. Scholars are divided on the origin of the Mushki; some say they are a different wave of the same people, while others say they came from a region east of the Black Sea. Others envision the Hittites leaving Asia Minor to move to Northern Syria, which is a move that is usually attributed to famine. This seems possible since Egypt dispatched grain to them in times of famine during the reign of Merneptah (1236-1223 BC). However, such an interpretation does not explain the fire that was fatal to it. Regardless of what transpired, areas were abandoned and the Hittite Empire went into the obscurity of a "Dark Age," again, and this time it was two centuries long.

Consider this description of the capital, Hattusa, recounted by its excavator:

"The city was destroyed in a great catastrophe. Wherever we set our spades, we found unmistakable signs of a devastating fire that had consumed everything that would burn, reduced brickwork to reddened masses of slag, and made limestone blocks explode in fragments. Sometimes one got the impression that the materials that happened to be in the buildings could never have been enough to raise such a blaze, such a heat; no thing, not a house, not a temple, not a hut escaped the work of destruction."

Palestine, too, shows "thick strata of burnt material" that could easily have occurred from ionizing radiation. Released into the atmosphere from the Earth (a fusion by-product), huge lightning-filled storms would be generated. Homer's works called them "thunderbolts" and he also attributes them to Zeus (Jupiter). An archeologist describes the character of the event that laid Palestine to waste: "These burnt strata are evidence of a major catastrophe which, shortly before the arrival of the Philistines in Palestine, destroyed the settlements of towns, such as Megiddo, Jericho, Lachish and others." As in so many other settlements, most devastation seems to have occurred around 1200 BC.

Both Syria and Palestine, as in other periods, are a picture of sheer chaos. For about three centuries (approximately 1200-900 BC) there are no writings, and the archeological evidence is unreliable for both places. The material evidence of disorder, and the change in the composition of the population were no less dramatic than that in Troy and Mycenae. Deserted, impoverished and demolished was the major city of Megiddo. The capital, Ugarit (Ras Shamra) was consumed by earthquakes, fire and famine. The Holy Bible says that Al Hazor and Jerusalem were also burnt to the ground (Joshua 8:28, & 11:11-13; Judges 1:8). These are but a few of the dozens of major cities that did not survive these times in this region alone. Both areas show signs of prosperity before their desolation; in fact, Palestine had just enlarged many of its towns. A stele erected by Pharaoh Merneptah tells the story: "Canaan is plagued by every evil. Ashkelon is carried off, Gezer taken, Yanoam is like that which is not, Israel is desolate, its seed is nought."

A new method used in archeology hints at the way in which the physical laws operate. Using a magnetic contour map showing local highs and lows, archeologists discovered a silt-filled "burial" cave in Jordan. Many of the finds there were whole and well-preserved; even metals had not corroded, indicating that it was swiftly covered. The absence of weapons disclosed that the human remains were probably not the result of war, because it was common practice to bury those who perished in war with their weapons. Excavators claim that this site is probably a burial cave, but the use of silt-fill it is more than unusual, it is indicative of what transpired. Could a forceful earth-movement or a huge sea wave have sealed the cave closed as people hid there? These differences in magnetic characteristics are one of the factors that attract the devastating forces in the first place, and even though this cave was buried it was still revealed by its effects on changing the magnetic contours in the area.

Asia and the Near East

Civilized areas of Central Asia and the Near East were also desolated and abandoned for one reason or another. Iranian tribes from the Northeast conquered most of Iran. Babylon in Iraq was overwhelmed by an Elamite invasion after which many monuments were removed to Susa in Iran. Namazga-Depe, except for the northern edge of the settlement, and Altin-Depe were abandoned again. Tekkem-Depe was consumed by fire, as indicated by the remains of charred fallen rafters on the floors. Remains of Turkmenian settlements illustrate a definite decline, with reduced population, and arts and crafts that become crude with the loss of knowledge.

Arslan Tepe, displaying gates decorated with lions and bas-reliefs, was abandoned. One episode in bas-reliefs shows the mighty god Teshub killing the great serpent Illuyanka in a tempest which expresses the essential forces of this dread "divinity," the creator of storms, and one who unleashes the elemental forces against civilization. Might this supposed "god," Teshub, responsible for powerful lightning-filled storms, have been the end of them, and those of the other sites of Central Asia and the Near East?

India was still in its millennium-long Dark Age, but the years 1250 to 950 BC seem to be particularly barren. Rangpur, the only remnant of the Harrappa civilization, a fragment of the lost Indus Civilization, was not to survive this period. Early Ganges, Doab and Copper Hoard cultures would not continue either. The crude, ochre-colored Doab pottery may give the only clue to the fate of the inhabitants of India. It was discovered to be heavily weather-beaten through the effects of wind and water. Possibly, as suggested at the site of the earlier Indus Civilization, an unusually severe typhoon struck the Indian subcontinent once again.

The Shang, who lived along the Yellow River Basin in China, and who were successors to the previous and utterly vanquished Hsia, had now also seen their time. Violently assaulted by the Chou, who would become the next rulers, the Shang dynasty was uprooted sometime between 1122 and 1027 BC. Besides the displacing of the Shang, the Yin were ousted from the Honan and K'o-hsing Chuang from Central Shensi, while others in Eastern Kansu were also displaced. Large-scale movements of many cultures occurred after the fall of the Shang and Yin. Why were they so easily set in motion? At least part of the answer is in a question asked at the time: "Will this year have pestilence and will it be deaths?"

Cultural elements and complexes penetrated deep into the northern part of Asia, causing widespread cultural changes. From the Aegean Basin in Greece and Northern Europe to, at least, the Yellow River Basin, disturbances shifted populations. The Chinese, like so many others, show that they did not learn their lesson, because they continued to cut down forests to create more farmland, an act that would lead to soil erosion, floods and drought in the years to come.

The entire Eurasian continent's population was set in motion, and even in the Former Soviet territories it was so widespread that its all-encompassing aspect leaves one breathless. Here, as elsewhere, ancient cultures disappeared as new ones formed. Smaller cultures blended together to form larger ones, for there is strength and security in unity, especially in times of trouble. Arctic cultures in the Northwest were affected by an influx of new eastern tribes who migrated from the Western Siberian forest zone into their territories. This was not an isolated phenomenon, for it formed only part of the migration of Eastern peoples into Europe along the entire Eurasiatic border from the Northern Urals to the Caspian Sea. Not only was the whole Arctic region affected, but also the Volga-Oka territory to its south, and in the steppe country this mass migration would reach the lower Dnieper River and as far west as Central Europe. A statement made in a sociological study seems to indicate the stimulus: "Big crises bring changes about most easily because they affect all individuals alike at the same time."

A look at the Maritime territory of the Khanka region (western Asia) offers a piece of this grand puzzle. An expert opinion offers this insight:

"It may thus be supposed that the oldest population of the area, related to northern tribes of the Tetyukhe group, was eventually replaced within the Neolithic period, by different tribes related to the inhabitants of Tungpei and the lower Amur. Nor is this the complete story. Soon and still during the Neolithic, the Khanka area apparently is the scene, once again, of sudden and dramatic events, perhaps clashes between tribes of differing origins and culture, inland and coastal."

It should be noted that the word "perhaps" shows the indefinite state of exactly what took place. This is not an isolated example, but illustrates how history is often written. In all probability the next work written on this region will eliminate the indefinite element, "perhaps," and set down as fact that these sudden and dramatic events were a result of clashes between tribes. This very thing has been done with respect to the Sea Peoples, who are the catch-all explanation for much of what took place during this period.

In contrast to his earlier statement, the same author describes one site in the Khanka region:

"At the very outset, one is struck by the abundance in these houses of whole clay vessels of various shapes and sizes, ranging from miniature bowls to large pots, probably intended for storing food. Lying in disorderly fashion as if suddenly abandoned were such objects as vessels crushed by fallen earth, whole and broken axes, knives, milling stones and mullers, as well as stylized animal figurines, representing bears and tigers, and round chalcedony pebbles, which in all likelihood served as toys for children or as charms. As a whole, the conditions inside the houses suggest that a sudden catastrophe had overcome this ancient village."

Newcomers to the area are a mystery because it is not known who they were or from where they had come. One thing is certain; they did not occupy the areas left behind. Were the remains of this ancient village so effectively covered that they were unnoticed by the newcomers? It was not a slow, gradual evolution as might be expected, but one of deep decisive transformations in a short time. What were once stone tools were now of flint, and their forms were entirely different. The usual Neolithic flint and obsidian knives, scrapers, punches and arrowheads were no longer in use. Slate copies of metal knives and arrowheads appeared for the first time. The type of stone (adze) changes, and the pottery had a new appearance both in shape and ornamentation. Without fail, all these and other changes were abrupt. It might be asked why the newcomers did not use those things left by the people they had the supposed conflict with? Or why, since they didn't, was the land not reoccupied by those who once abandoned it? Quite simply, this is not unique, but a product of the times, and indicative of more than a human versus human history. An archeologist studying the area states: "In this connection arises the question of the origin of all these various changes, which the new historical era, the new period in the history of the region, brought to the inhabitants of the Maritime region. What were the causes and roots of all these changes?"

In this context, sociological investigation reveals this: "When there comes the shattering of the matrix of custom by catastrophe, then mores are broken up and scattered right and left. Fluidity is accomplished at a stroke. There comes a sudden chance for permanent social change."


Egypt was to be immersed in chaos, too. In 1220 BC, Egypt was attacked from the west by Libyans accompanied by Meshwesh and other Berber people, and were reinforced by five "Sea Peoples" attempting a migration. It might very well have been that they were fighting for their lives, having been ousted by the devastation that shook Eurasia. The Sea Peoples reached the northwest corner of the Delta before being repulsed by pharaoh Merneptah (1224-1214 BC). In 1194 BC, and again in 1188 BC, Egypt was to face the Berbers, and independently, the Sea Peoples, but rebuffed them each time. The Luka from southwestern Asia Minor was one of the "defeated" Sea Peoples, and the Achaeans from continental Greece or Crete were another. The remaining three Sea Peoples were the Sheklesh, Sherden and Tursha. The truly amazing aspect of this scenario is that the majority of the Sea Peoples disappeared from history, not for a few decades, nor even a few generations, but for 500 years !

The Sheklesh, Sherden and Tursha reappeared as the Sikels, Sardinians and Tyresnoi (Etruscans). As already noted, the Achaeans went into a "Dark Age," and the Luka, too, seemed to pass into obscurity. The Meshwesh, who took part in the 1220 BC migration, reappeared as the Maxya in what is now Tunisia, and nearly 300 years later made a penetration into Egypt, establishing themselves as the pharaohs of the 22nd Dynasty. This is hardly the kind of history for people who were supposed to have viciously and catastrophically burnt entire civilizations!

In this regard consider a Karnak inscription in the fifth year of Merneptah's reign: "Libya has become a barren desert; the Libyans come to Egypt to seek sustenance for their bodies.". Also, ponder these quotes from the Papyrus Ipuwer , written at this time:

"Forsooth, the Desert is throughout the land. The nomes are laid waste. A foreign tribe from abroad has come to Egypt" (3:1). "Today fear -- more than a million of people. Not seen -- enemies -- enter into the temples -- weep!" (12:6ff). "What has happened? -- Though it is to cause the Asiatics to know the condition of the land" (15:1). "Men -- they have come to an end for themselves. There are none found to stand and protect themselves" (14:11).

As one can plainly see in these quotes, the Egyptians knew other areas were having trouble, and people from those areas were entering Egypt as Egypt also had already been brought into disorder. There is much more which suggests this. Consider the Ermitage Papyrus: "That which was made is as though it were never made. The whole land hath perished, there is nought left. This land is ruined. I show thee the land in lamentation and distress: that which never happened before hath happened. The land is destroyed."

The other side of Egyptian history displays quite an interesting contrast to the outweighed events comprising the Sea Peoples. Ramses II, who began the period, boasted that he had "united and pacified all lands." Little did he or those who followed, be they historians or rulers, know that he made this claim because he hastened to establish his own fame by despoiling existing temples. After his death, Egypt plunged into anarchy as it suffered from famine and constant disorder.

Subsequent rulers were many, the majority of which reigned but a few years. Eleven weak rulers bearing the name of Ramses were among those that followed him. Little is known of them, except that they were puppets to the priests of Amon-Ra, the sun-god. As in the previous period, the central power had lost its control and the Sun was revered more than usual.

During this time there was much confusion, and land fell rapidly in value. Robbery on the highways and especially in tombs became a recognized profession, with corrupt officials sharing in the spoils. No new buildings were erected, and many great temples, including Pi-Ramesse, a new capital built by Ramses II, fell into disrepair or were destroyed. This was in contrast to the pharaohs' undertakings between the two destructive periods when much building was accomplished. In Thebes it was a time of acute inflation, leading to the first historically recorded strike by laborers who organized to refuse work on a new pyramid, because the payroll had been delayed.

Egyptian rule over what is now Nubia and the Northern Nilotic Sudan was continuous, until the breakup of the New Kingdom (1087 BC). Then Egypt fell apart into two states, one governed from Thebes, the other from Tanis. Both were friendly, but it was a sure sign of weakness. During the Thebian Civil War, the tombs of kings were pillaged, and royal mortuary temples were stripped of valuable furnishings. Nubian troops were called in to restore order, but this also contributed to the degradation of monuments. Little is known of the political activities that laid the way for establishing the 21st Dynasty, except that it was a period for the usurpation of statuary and reuse of materials from earlier times -- Had the devastation made this necessary?

Religion in Egypt was undergoing major transition during the New Kingdom and thereafter, reflecting its journey through chaos. Theologically, the birth and death of the pharaoh were linked with the concepts of order and chaos in both Nature and society. With so many rulers and so much disorder after Ramses II, what other belief could be predicted? It should be noted that it was not just society in chaos, as might be expected if it were only the Sea Peoples or any faction of society that had caused the unrest, but it was also chaos in Nature.

Set and Sutekh were identified in the 19th Dynasty, along with the chaos. "Roaring Set" was understood to be a destroying, blighting and avenging influence, and Sutekh, the storm "god," was the "lord" of all other deities. Baal, the lord of earthquakes, wind and fire, was worshiped at Tanis immediately following this period, and later a temple was to be erected to Baal at Memphis. "In Egypt, Baal was regarded as a god of the sky -- a conception which fairly corresponds to his original nature -- and as a great but essentially, a destructive deity."

Ramses II showed great respect for this imported (Asian) deity and even claimed that he was a warrior lord like Baal. Identified with the hot, evil desert winds was Shu, "The Uplifter," and his consort, Tefnut, the one who brings pestilence, and was also known as "The Spitter" who sent rain. It should be noted that all of these characteristics represent the effects of ionized winds. By reflecting solely on religious concepts it is evident that it was a time of chaos in Nature and society, with destructive forces that were dominated by great storms, earthquakes, evil winds, rain, pestilence, fire and plague, like other regions.

Considering other lines in the Papyrus Ipuwer it becomes clear what had transpired. Unlike the "Journey of Wen --Amon" (Papyrus El Hiba ) that discusses the Sea People, the Papyrus Ipuwer seems never to be dealt with when Egyptian history is written today. However, consider the picture it portrays:

"Plague is throughout the land. Blood is everywhere (2:5-6/7:21). Forsooth, the land turns round as does a potter's wheel (2:8). The river is blood. Men shrink from tasting, and thirst after water. Forsooth, gates, columns and walls are consumed by fire (2:10/7:20,24; 9:23-24). The towns are destroyed. Upper Egypt has become dry (2:11). He who places his brother in the ground is everywhere (2:13/12:30). All is ruin! It is groaning that is throughout the land, mingled with lamentations (3:13-14/12:30). Forsooth, that has perished which yesterday was seen. The land is left over to its weariness like the cutting of flax (5:12/10:15). Would that there might be an end of men, no conception, no birth! Oh, that the Earth would cease from noise, and tumult be no more! (5:141) Years of noise. There is no end to noise (4:2). No fruit nor herbs are found [causing] hunger (6:1/9:25). The prison is ruined (6:3). Behold, the fire has mounted upon high. Its burnings goes forth against the enemies of the land" (7:1/13:21).

"Men flee. Tents are what they make, like the dwellers of the hills (10:2/12:33,39). The land was in great affliction. Evil fell on the Earth. It was a great upheaval in the residence. Nobody left the palace during nine days, and during the nine days, there was such a tempest that neither the men nor the gods could see the face of their next (10:22-23). That is our water! That is our happiness! What shall we do in respect there of? All is ruin!" (3:10-13/7:20,24).

At least two Egyptians named Mose appear in 13th-Century-BC Egyptian records, and a variety of other facts indicate that Moses was a real person. Next to the verse and line number of those lines just quoted from the Papyrus Ipuwer are the verse and line number from the "Book of Exodus" in the Holy Bible; that is, (Ipuwer/Exodus). These show clear parallels in the description of events, and the Holy Bible should be consulted if clarification of this is desired. Likewise, archeological evidence supports both the Egyptian sources and the Holy Bible. Israelite tradition and the Holy Bible represent Moses as having negotiated after the Exodus a pact between Israel and God, who was called Yahweh, which is tentatively interpreted as "live," or "life-giving." One of the commandments given by Yahweh was "Thou shalt not kill," but its connection to all life (destroying life destroys humans) is a lesson still not understood by many today.

Moses led the Israelites out of Egyptian bondage on a trek from Egypt to Transjordan, called the Exodus. This was a time of treacherous torment in the land of the pharaoh -- the waters turned to "blood," separate plagues of frogs, lice, flies, diseased livestock, boils, locusts and thick darkness, and a calamitous hail brought havoc. The plagues had caused the pharaoh to release the slaves who were later pursued by the army, because the pharaoh then regretted their escape. As they were trapped between the mountains and the sea, a heavy cloud-darkened sky released incessant lightning the entire night. At the same time a pillar of fire raged, and at dawn the sea was parted by a double tide of gigantic force. The slaves escaped through the pathway while the pursuing army was put to death by the closing walls of water. It is no mistake that their refuge was to be forty years in the wilderness: obviously, safety was away from civilization.

Not only Egyptian and Judean writings, but the archeological record, too, confirms this. Western Thebes, with its main cemetery and the Valley of the Kings, was abandoned at the downfall of the New Kingdom (1087 BC). It is at the Valley of the Kings that we find the myth of the "Destruction of Men by the Gods" revived on the walls of the tombs of Ramses II and Ramses III (13th-12th Century BC). Abu Simbel with its colossal seated statues of the pharaoh ended early (1224 BC) in a place, as with many New Kingdom temples, where the population can have scarcely been more than a small village. Why were such large temples without substantial population? Could the more vastly populated areas have met with such thorough desolation that almost nothing was left? The site of Tanis, a major archeological puzzle, has no buildings or strata which can, for certain, be ascribed to a period earlier that Psusennes I in the 11th Century BC. However, there are many stone monuments at Tanis from earlier periods, including eighteen obelisks of Ramses II, a fragment of a colossus of his about 28 meters (92 feet) high, and many sphinxes and statues of the Middle Kingdom.

It might be asked whether the late New Kingdom city of Per-Ramses (the Biblical "Ramses") once stood there and was met with complete destruction. Some believe this is possible for Per-Ramses is mentioned in reliable sources, but has not yet been found. The plague of "boils" (Exodus 9:8-12) may have been an epidemic of smallpox since a skin eruption on an Egyptian mummy of Ramses V of the 20th Dynasty was tentatively diagnosed as such. In addition, a sarcophagus in the museum of Ismaila bears an inscription of the downfall of the pharaoh (1220 BC) who was drowned by the "Jam Suf" in the "Sea of Reeds" while in pursuit of the "Children of Israel."

The Medinet Habu Tablets clarify some of the events. Some of the Sea Peoples, as prisoners, declare: "Our islands are uprooted and carried away. The might of Nun [ocean] broke forth and fell in great wave on our towns and villages. The head of their cities has gone under the sea; their land is no more" (inscriptions 37, 46, 80, 102 & 109). This is very much like the geologist's descriptions examined earlier for northern Europe. Ramses III declared on the walls of Medinet Habu that "the whole delta of the Nile is flooded by the sea." Later he states, as does the archeological evidence, that there were vast fires in the Near East: "Libya became a desert; a terrible torch hurled flame from heaven to destroy their souls and lay waste their land [as] their bones burn and roast within their limbs [and] the Nile was dried up and the land fell victim to drought" (Tablet 105). Again, like Homer, the fires are said to be the result of a source from outside of the Earth.

Other inscriptions about Libya seem to indicate the same. At Karnak an inscription reads: "Libya has become a desert and without fruit. The Libyans come to Egypt to seek sustenance for their bodies." Osorkon II, of the Libyan dynasty in Egypt, writes in contrast: "The flood came on, in this whole land. This land was in its power like the sea; there was no dyke of the people to withstand its fury. All the people were like birds upon it, the tempest [was] suspended, like the heavens. All the temples of Thebes were like marshes."

Elsewhere in Africa

Today, very little is known of African archeology for this point in time, though what is available shows that throughout the remainder of the continent a similar picture can be drawn. The villages of the Naghez phase at Dar Tichitt, those at Esh Shaheinab and Khasm el Girba on the Atbara ceased to exist beyond this time period. Also, the production of backed "small-stones" or microliths had been virtually abandoned in the 11th Century BC. Sites near Gwisho Springs in Central Zambia, whose lower levels were waterlogged, were no longer occupied after what this cycle brought upon them. Like the Americas, Africa, with the exception of Egypt, was affected comparatively little. The changes consisted mostly of new cultural elements, because, unlike their "civilized" counterparts in the Old World, Africa, outside of Egypt, had done very little to destroy the natural environment.

The Americas

In the Americas, humanity was still a great deal less destructive with and had more belief in their natural surroundings to support their livelihood than the civilized areas of Europe and Asia. Take, for example, the Arctic region of North America where climatic deterioration caused Eskimo bands to fragment into a series of separate and relatively isolated groups. This is also the probable reason for the abandonment of Three Saints Bay at Kodiak Island. Eskimo tradition first appeared in the Aleutians and on Norton Sound. The Norton Pottery complex began at this time, and shows definite similarities to the pottery in the Lena Valley in Siberia, an area affected by the great migration throughout Eurasia. The Shield Archaic transformed into the Pre-Dorset in the Keewatin region (eastern Northwest Canada). Also, the Pre-Dorset pioneers of the Central and Eastern Arctic evolved toward the patterns that are later identified as Dorset, at a time when there is a warm period. Meanwhile, the Inuit migrate back once more into the High Arctic. There were mostly cultural transitions in the New World during this cycle.

Alaska's Small Tool tradition indicates one way in which this took place. An author writing on ancient Native Americans states:

"The seeming presence of such a break is sufficiently consistent to hint that the major subsistence base of the people disappeared rather suddenly. The late second millennium BC saw a lowering of the average temperature, followed by a slightly warmer interval, and then another cold period. The climatic factor may have served to drastically restrict the patterns of caribou migration, which would be expected to affect the subsistence of the Arctic Small Tool people."

Another reason for this transition is reflected in observations of contact from those cultures who must have fled Europe and Asia. For example, it has been "pointed out that Vinette 1 pottery appeared without antecedents prior to 1000 BC in New York State and adjacent Canada, and in most respects is very similar to contemporary pottery of Norway, which has a long evolutionary history."

European funerary practices including barrow building may be reflected in use of burial mounds in the Great Plains region (e.g., the Woodland culture). The Hopewell, of the same region, has a number of ceramic traits that have European parallels. It has been suggested that some linguistic characteristics had been borrowed from the Baltic region, and that the sweat bath could represent a trans-Atlantic transfer, as well.

A good deal of evidence argues that Egyptians of the time of Ramses III were among those who strongly influenced the Olmec culture in Mesoamerica. As stated, in the previous cycle, their origins are a mystery, but one which could easily be solved by considering a grafting of Egyptian (1100 BC) with Chinese (1500 BC). Of interest in this regard is the claim of Diodorus Siculus in the 1st Century BC who says that America was discovered by a storm-blown Phoenician ship after the 1104 BC founding of Gadeira (Cadiz, Spain). As a point of interest it should be noted that Phoenician writing has been discovered on every continent, but next to nothing of the Phoenician civilization itself has been found. The Chavin culture of South America began about 1200 BC, possessing certain distinctive Old World features, such as the cat-god that resembles that at Bubastis, on the Egyptian delta. There is very little doubt that the migrations of this time cover the entire globe.

Friar Diego De Landa, a 16th-Century-AD missionary in Mexico, writes about the ancient traditions of Mesoamericans: "Some old men of Yucatan say that they have heard from their ancestors that this country was peopled by a certain race who came from the east, whom God delivered by opening for them twelve roads through the sea." He continues by saying they must be of Jewish decent, but this is only a possible conclusion. Possibly some are and may have even brought the Egyptian elements to Mesoamerica, since they had been slaves in Egypt. Similar tales had been related by natives versed in ancient tradition told to the Spaniards.

Migrations occurred between the Americas, too. Maize, which had been in Mexico prior to 3000 BC, suddenly appeared in Peru. Mesoamerican influences first appear in Colombia. These influences include the Jaguar cult, burial mounds, monolithic sarcophagi (a coffin hewn from a single stone) and obsidian mirrors. Also, in Colombia some groups had begun to move south, away from what was for many generations the principal source of food. It is obvious that something environmental had happened to the shellfish that caused these people to leave the source of their livelihood, and begin a migration to areas they were far less certain with. This was also a time for the first occupation of the Interior Plateau and the northwest coast of North America, and the lowlands and highlands of South America were being repopulated by newcomers or totally abandoned (some for as much as a thousand years following).

There is evidence of dramatic environmental changes in North America. "After 1200 BC evidence of marshland exploitation vanishes at Hogup Cave, and lacustrine deposits in a sediment core from the flats below the site suggest that an abrupt rise in lake level may have completely drowned the marsh at that time. Waterfowl disappeared from the later record and occurrences of pickleweed and of the milling stones used to process it decline radically."

Also, Surprise Valley in Northeastern California shows an end of the Bare Creek phase. Jackrabbits, cotton-tails, marmots, ground squirrels, and waterfowl increase, which suggests increasing aridity. These are but two examples of what was widespread.

Climate and Solar Activity

The evidence of vast climatic changes is well recorded in the Americas. Owens Lake in California overflowed, and climatic deterioration caused Eskimo bands to fragment in the North American Arctic. In both the Arctic and the Subarctic, weather was cooler and more unstable than today, resulting in a shift of the treeline southward. Tropical lowlands began to assume their present condition, as patches of forest expanded across intervening Savanna until they had joined to create the Amazon Forest of today. This makes one wonder whether the natives' observations, in more recent times, of lost civilizations there could be those that ended at this time, and were swallowed up by the forest. The advance of glaciers in southern Chile, North America, Patagonia, British Colombia, Alaska, and elsewhere has lead this time to be labeled the "neoglacial" period.

In Eurasia and Africa, there is other evidence concerning weather changes. Boas in Northern Europe experienced renewed flooding. So much was this flooding that trade routes had become stretches of marsh and were given up. Possibly what began the migrations that overwhelmed the Eurasian continent were the disastrous floods that swept the Hungarian Plain, the rise in the level of the Caspian Sea, and the drought that caused the abandonment of settlements in northern Persia.

The lower levels at which snow accumulated in Norway, Alpine folk legends, and the sudden end of gold mining in the Alps attest to the widespread effects of the changing climate. Global cooling was especially evident from 1200 to 1190 BC, which is associated with the end of the Bronze Age in Europe and Western Asia, the Neolithic of Eastern Asia, and the Trojan Wars. Drill-cores from the Mediterranean Sea bed indicate warm-water types of chalk-forming plankton (foraminifera), then volcanic ash greater than any observed, and finally, cold-water plankton, indicating a drop in temperature. In the Norwegian Mountains during the mid-13th Century BC the snow line lowered by 400 meters (1,312 feet). No glaciers were observed in the Eastern Alps until around 1200 BC, when they reached far into valleys.

Droughts were known to occur in northwestern Asia in 1150 BC and 1130 BC, and at times around the Black Sea. New stone age (Neolithic) camping sites in the Eurasian forest belt moved because of a drop in the water level of nearby lakes. At the same time, Lake Naivasha in Western Central Kenya, in Africa, dried up. The climatic world is one world; disturbances in some areas indicate equally meaningful changes elsewhere.

The understanding is clear in regard that weather changes were global. Around 1250 BC there were heat waves and droughts with an unparalleled recession of the water table worldwide, causing an extraordinarily dry climate. Following this, a warm, moist climate occurred before a global fall in temperature that would last until the mid-10th Century BC. Many severe droughts occurred in the 13th Century BC only to give way to a moist and globally colder condition, which was particularly dominant from 1220 BC to 1140 BC. The cooler climate, with increased precipitation, is known to have been uniform over the whole Northern Hemisphere, New Zealand, and at least, parts of South America. This physical evidence appears to support many claims by those writing history at the time, and its final stage is correlated well with the known effects of increased solar activity.

Heaven-sent Fire in 1250-1050 BC

The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos empirically establish that there is a field system throughout the cosmos. Furthermore, the planets magnetosphere's can balloon during solar maximums. For example, Jupiter's magnetosphere enlarged about 25 times between the Voyager mission, and the Galileo mission. According to ancient authors, the planets have exchanged huge lightning-like discharges between each other and the Earth. This can explain the vast fires noted in the writings of the time, as well as the archeological evidence of burnt settlements. Here are some of the mythology and ancient writings that describe these and other events. Again, this only one period, and there are nine others that have similar scenes.

Egypt and the Near East

'Anat was the name given Venus by the people of Ugarit (Ras Shamra) in Syria. Ugarit's fall was completed by the beginning of the 12th Century BC. They offer the following comment about Venus, which they call 'Anat, "The star 'Anat has fallen from heaven; he slew the people of the Syrian land, and confused the two twilights and the seats of the constellations." "You reverse the position of the dawn in the sky." These statements suggest that Venus not only sent an electrostatic discharge toward Earth, but also that the Earth experienced a polar reversal or wander, which is considered an unlikely event so recently in the past (i.e., according to conventional theory).

'Anat was introduced into Egyptian thought by Ramses II (1304 to 1237 BC). Like the Semitic belief which combined 'Anat with Yaw, the Mother-goddess, and Astarte, the Earth-goddess, 'Anat ruled over the Earth and the life upon it, and was associated with the Sun (FEM's solar linkage). 'Anat was a goddess of war, "clad in terror" that made the "gods" -- the physical forces and the planets -- tremble.

Bas-reliefs in Egypt show her with the emblem of life, and with the gods Min and Reshep on either side. Min represents Horus with two feathers on its head portraying Isis and Nephthys. This association suggests that the Sun and Moon, probably in eclipse or a nodal point (Horus), and the Great Mother of all life who restores vegetation and the physical world (Isis who revives Osiris) are involved in an event that brought death and decay (Nephthys is a goddess of death). Reshep's association tells us that the fiery bolt, lightning and thunderbolt are partially responsible, because these are Reshep's attributes. All in all, characteristics like this indicate Venus ('Anat) struck the Earth with thunderbolts (Reshep), during a solar or lunar eclipse (Horus), at a time of death and decay (Nephthys), followed by the renewal of the Earth and the life on Earth (Isis and Osiris).

This is also related in the tale of Isis, Osiris, Horus and Set, which emerges once again (see Plate 51). Set (also Seth or Sutekh) was regarded as a god of evil, darkness, drought, desert, and against all life and good. He was a diety of thunder, tempest, rain, lightning, hurricanes, storms, earthquakes, and eclipses, and one who reversed the order of the Earth and Heavens (i.e., polar reversal or wander). Set was attributed with all the various Field phenomena.

Like Osiris and Isis, he is the son of the Earth, Geb, and the Heavens, Nut. Set kills his brother Osiris, the god of vegetation, life and the physical world. Isis, the Great Mother of all life, restores Osiris back to life (the renewal of wilderness).

Horus, the Sun and Moon, battles with Set to avenge his father's, Osiris', death. The battle takes three days and three nights, as is typical of Field phenomena (the 3-4 day period), resulting in the death of Horus, which represents an eclipse. Isis cries to the sun-god, Ra or Re, who makes the Sun stand still in the Heavens, and comes to the aid of Isis in the form of Thoth in order to revive Horus. Thoth holds sway over the Moon and measures time. Together these attributes and the tale indicate a change in the length of day (LOD) and the Earth's rotation. The other names of Isis also suggest this, and include, "lady of the new year" and "the maker of the sunrise." Later, Isis was celebrated by the Greeks in festivals twice a year around the equinoxes.

As described earlier, the Sun and Moon affect the Field-system as if they were a single unit. Horus, the Sun and Moon, and Set, Field phenomena, are said to be one force throughout time, which is called "the secret of the two partners." Isis -- life and the Earth -- is to have brought about the Great Holy Serpent, which is associated with fire and water as is the Field (ionization and lightning, and situated in the oceans). They represent the solar-FEM and FEM-lunar linkages.

The serpent is identical to Set who, in the Harris Magic Papyrus, is said to "shaketh the sky and Earth by his thunder-storms, [and fights] the wide-mouthed dragon." Set was said to have battled against the Sun, when taking the form of the serpent 'Apop or 'Apophis, in order to prevent the Sun from rising in the East (i.e., a polar reversal). The monstrous serpent of the underworld is associated with Set and 'Apop, and is synonymous with Osiris (life). FEM, including its association with the biosphere (life), and its release of ionizing radiation are being described in the form of gods.

Other attributes of Osiris and Horus lend more insight to the story and its later forms, as it is repeated throughout history. The ocean, where the Fields are located, is either beneficent and representing Osiris, or opposed to him and the whole order of the world. Horus is also sometimes represented as a serpent head. "Horus the Opener of the Secret" or "The Resplendent" is Jupiter, "The Red Horus" represents Mars, and "Horus the Bull" is Saturn, the master of the lower world and ruler of hell. These different descriptions of Horus may indicate a lightning-like exchange between FEM and these other planets.

In Egypt this was the time of the Israelite Exodus from bondage, and the enigmatic Sea Peoples. The Sea Peoples fled into Egypt with their women, children and moveable property. Egyptian texts, such as the Papyrus Ipuwer, Medinet Habu Tablets and others, as well as the Holy Bible and other related documents express the vivid displays in the Heavens, and events that overwhelmed the inhabitants of the Earth.

The texts of Sethos II (approximately 1215-1210 BC) have this understanding to offer. Sekhmet is purported to be Venus. "Sekhmet was a circling star, which spread out his fire in flames, a fire-flame in his storm." Sekhmet was also known of in Libya, Syria, Palestine, India, and elsewhere around the Persian Gulf Field.

The Medinet Habu Tablets, which describe events involving the Sea Peoples, explain the reason for their attempted migration into Egypt. It was a heavenly sent fire from Venus, who is represented by Sekhmet. "Their forests and fields are burnt with fire. The heat of him has burnt their countries. The fire of Sekhmet has burnt the lands of the nine bows. They had before them a sea of flame." (Tablets 17 and 46). Likewise, Ramses III (1198-1166 BC) writes in a tablet, "Libya became a desert; a terrible torch hurled flame from heaven to destroy their souls and lay waste their land, their bones burn and roast within their limbs [and] the Nile was dried up and the land fell victim to drought." (Tablet 105)

As addressed in the previous chapter, many cities' and towns' burnt remains reveal the evidence of a widespread fire. Sites dated to this time in Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Crete, Greece, Hungary, central Germany, Egypt, India, and the forests of Europe and Asia attest to the all-encompassing nature of the fire. According to the Egyptians, and other cultures around the Persian Gulf Field, the fire came from an lightning-like exchange between the Earth and Venus.

It is not just the widespread character of these fires that baffle experts, but also the intensity and remote locations of its effects. Assur in Assyria was laid waste by fire at the end of the 13th Century by an intense heat that even vitrified the building. That is, the heat melted and fused the building's bricks into glass, and other compounds that are only possible with very intense heat. Consider this observation, "Nobody can explain the origin of this intense heat which melted together hundreds of fragments of brick, and reddened and vitrified the entire core of the building."

A mountain-pine forest, the Black Forest, was also devastated by some unknown fiery agent at this time.

"Since it is unknown, so far as I am aware, for mountain-pine forests to catch fire by lightning, these burnings must have been deliberately caused. However, as far as we know the upper slopes of the northern Black Forest were not inhabited at that time, and so it is hard to understand the purpose of such a burning. The problem of how the burnt stratum occurred is therefore still unsolved."

About 1000 BC, after a change in climate, this mountain-pine forest was replaced by a forest with different tree species, so the event definitely took place in this period.

Another indication of what had transpired is apparent in this quote from an Egyptian source, "The thirteenth day of the month Thout [is] a very bad day. Thou shalt not do anything on this day. It is the day of the combat which Horus waged with Seth." Horus can be Jupiter, Saturn or Mars, depending on the ancient source and time, who like Zeus (Jupiter) of the Iliad sent lightning-like discharges or "thunderbolts" toward the Earth. Horus also represents the relationships between the Sun and Moon that occur during eclipses and bring about the release of ionizing radiation, which produces the thunderbolts. The month of Thoth is March, so the event being described occurred around the vernal equinox and the gods personify the solar-lunar-FEM linkages.

Seth is "all that is destruction and perversity; a kind of devil, enemy of all gods." The roaring Seth was an atmospheric or storm god, a blighting, destructive, and avenging influence on humankind. To the Egyptians, Seth was associated with 'Apop, the serpent of the underworld. "A Greek papyrus addresses Seth as 'hill-shaker, thunderer, hurricane-raiser, rock-shaker; the destroyer, who disturbs the sea itself.'" This conforms well with our understanding of Field areas on Earth, which are mainly situated in the sea, produce hurricanes, and emit charged particles that create lightning, disturb the sea and trigger earthquakes.

Plutarch explains, "The Egyptains regularly call Typhon 'Seth.'" Typhon, representing Field phenomena, was the monstrous son of Gaia, the Greco-Roman Earth-mother. He was a demon of the whirlwind, upon his shoulders he carried a hundred serpent-heads that spit out fire, his voice was like all formidable beasts in one, and his eyes were fire. Typhon is associated with the pillar and serpent symbols, and also Saturn. Zeus, who is Jupiter, felled him with the thunderbolt. Plutarch tells us that he helps to bring about a fierce fire that scorches and burns up the world, making a "greater part of the Earth uninhabitable by reason of his blaze." He is attributed with hurricanes, hot winds and smoke. Typhon not only appears in Homer's Iliad, but also Ovid's Metamorphoses (Book 5), Hesoid's Theogony, and numerous other writings throughout history.

"Zeus pelted Typhon at a distance with thunderbolts," Apollodorus tells us (Epitome II). Strabo relates that Typhon "when struck by the bolts of lightning fled in search of a descent underground" (Geography, VII: 3 & 8). Typhon was a storm-god and attributed with the phenomena of the Field areas. Serpents, of which Typhon was associated, are characteristic of Field phenomena, as will become clear.

The myth of the "Destruction of Men by the Gods" was revived on the walls of the tombs of Seti I, Ramses II and Ramses III. As you might recall from the discussion in Tome Six it was Sekhmet, which is Venus, that nearly destroyed mankind.

The Papyrus Ipuwer describes the destructive force and characteristics of the phenomena, which includes a polar reversal. "Gates, columns, and walls are consumed by fire. The sky is in confusion. [The] land is not light. [And the] Earth turned upside down." (2:8, 10; 7:1, 9:11, 11:11 & 12:6). "Squalor is throughout the land. There is none whose clothes are white in these times, all are laid low by terror."

In the Papyrus Hermitage (1116 BC) there are descriptions of the same event, which include the type of darkness that could be the result of neutrons.

"How fareth this land? The Sun is veiled and will not shine that men may see. None will live when the storm veilth it; all men are dulled through the want of it. The Sun separateth himself from men; he ariseth when it is the hour. None will know that it is midday, and his shadow will not be distinguished. No face will be bright that beholdeth thee, and the eyes will not be moistened with water [through looking at the Sun]. He is in the sky like the Moon." Another account reaffirms this, "In the days of Typhon the Nile was empty of water and the Sun darkened."

Hydrogen fusion produces by-products of ionizing radiation, one constituent of which is neutrons. Neutrons are known to block or attract light like tiny magnets, and as a result, appear like a dark mass. This is why other descriptions indicate that artificial light could not dispel the darkness. Aside from this, ionizing radiation precipitates carbon and hydrocarbons out of the atmosphere. Both are dark or black in color. This is not the only description, as will be shown, that refers to such an enveloping darkness, and at times, the rain of some black substance.

Written on the shrine of Al-Arish is the following:

"The land was in great distress. Misfortune fell upon the whole Earth. There was a terrible uproar in the capital. For nine days no one could leave the palace. During these nine days of storm there was such a tempest that neither men nor gods [i.e., the members of the royal family] could distinguish the faces around them."

In the Harris Magic Papyrus, the serpent, usually referred to as 'Apop (also 'Apep or 'Apepi), is described with the same attributes as Seth. This serpent is said to "shaketh sky and Earth by his thunder-storms" and fights the "wide-mouthed dragon." A cosmic upheaval of fire is referred to in the Harris Magic Papyrus when there was what might be considered a polar reversal. It states that "the south becomes north, and the Earth turns over." It reinforces the statements of the Papyrus Ipuwer that the "Earth turned upside down." Also, the Pyramid Texts say that the Sun "ceased to live in the Occident, and shines, a new one, in the Orient." Again, the statements suggest the unexpected, a polar reversal in human history.

Elsewhere in the Near East

In Turkey, Troy was being mentioned in the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Describing the reason for the charred remains of Troy is the following from the "Fifth Book" of the Iliad in which Jupiter is Zeus:

"Then terribly thundered the father of gods and men from on high; and from beneath did Poseidon cause the vast earth to quake, and the steep crests of the mountains. The lightning of great Zeus and his dread thunder, whenso it crasheth from heaven. [A] wondrous blazing fire. First on the plain was the fire kindled, and burned the dead, and all the plain was parched. Together then they clashed with a mighty din, and the wide Earth rang, and round about great heaven pealed as with a trumpet."

Throughout the poetry of the Iliad are descriptions of Venus, called Athene, and Mars, bearing the name Ares, battling. Athene (or Athena), a goddess of battle, is associated with Venus, the thunderbolt and the Sun (i.e., solar activity). The serpent (which represents the Field) was sacred to her. Air ionization would increase aggressive acts as the result of positive-ion winds (see Chapter 14 of The Vital Vastness -- Volume One). Ares, whose name might be translated "a curse," wages war, and also wields the thunderbolt. Both control storms and rain. Mars is described as a destroyer of cities, but is defeated by Venus in battle. Mars is also depicted as ascending the sky in a darkened cloud. In the Odyssey, Homer describes the Sun as having a violent temper, and liable when angry to flare, disclosing intensified solar activity.

This was also the time of the Exodus when the Israelites fled from Egyptian bondage. The Holy Bible and related texts explain many of the events which conform well with what we have already witnessed from Egyptian sources and archaeological investigation.

"And Moses stretched forth his rod toward heaven: and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along the ground; and the Lord rained hail upon the land of Egypt." (Exodus 9:23). "And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night." (Exodus 13:21).

Likewise, in the legends of the Hebrews, an account says, "The Lord fought against the Egyptians with the pillar of cloud and fire. The mire was heated to the boiling point by the pillar of fire." Here the serpent that is described in other cultures is instead referred to as a pillar of fire.

Philo, an author of the First Century AD, who had access to ancient libraries long since destroyed and describes Biblical antiquities, has this to say:

"The mountain [Sinai] burned with fire and the Earth shook and the hills were removed, and the mountains overthrown; the depths boiled, and all the inhabitable places were shaken, and flames of fire shone forth and thunderings and lightnings were multiplied, and winds and tempests made a roaring: the stars [planets] were gathered together."

The phrase "gathered together" may be referring to a planetary alignment or consider the following.

Pseudo-Philo, believed to be rewritten materials of Philo, says that the Lord, "impeded the course of the stars. The Earth was stirred from her foundation, and the mountains and the rocks trembled in their fastenings, and the clouds lifted up their waves against the flame of the fire that it should not consume the world, and all the waves of the sea came together."

In the traditions of the Israelites it is related that before the coming of the "Northerners" (ha Saponi), whose leading tribe was the Philistines, fire fell from Heaven and burnt the entire country. A great deal of evidence can be found in the archaeological, geological and contemporary literature of vast fires. The previous chapter disclosed much of this evidence.

The Holy Bible, the Talmud, the Midrashim, and the Midrash Rabba refer to this time as one when the Heavens were disordered. In the "Book of Joshua," partially compiled from the "Book of Jasher," we find: "The Sun stood still, and the Moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the Book of Jasher? So the Sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day." (10:12). Again, the description appears to be an observation of a change in the length of day.

The Babylonian Talmud, and the Midrashim and other ancient rabbinical sources repeatedly speak of the Sun not following its prescribed course on a number of occasions during the time between the day of the Exodus, and the day of the Lawgiving. The Midrash Rabba also tells us that there was a "greater length of time taken by some planets." Meanwhile, before the Exodus, "God hastened the course of the planets during Israel's stay in Egypt," reveals a Midrashic source. The Holy Bible has this to say,

"The Lord said unto Moses, stretch out thine hand toward Heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt. And Moses stretched forth his hand toward Heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days."(Exodus 10:21-23).

"On the fourth, fifth, and sixth days, the darkness was so dense that they could not stir from their place. The darkness was of such a nature that it could not be dispelled by artificial means. The light of the fire was made invisible and swallowed up in the density of the darkness. Nothing could be discerned. None was able to speak or to hear, nor could anyone venture to take food, but they lay themselves down, their outward senses in a trance. Thus they remained, overwhelmed by the affliction. Their eyes were blinded by it and their breath choked [and it was] not of an ordinary earthly kind. The darkness came from hell and could be felt."

Solar Activity, Climate and Comets

There are indications that weather and solar activity had undergone major transitions during this period. Climatology reveals a time which brought forth increased precipitation and a glacial advance known as the Neoglacial period. At first there were worldwide heat waves and it was very dry. Afterward, there was increased moisture and cold. The gods of the time indicate storms, rain, evil winds, fire and more. In Egypt, the pharaohs were merely the weak puppets of the priests of Amon-Ra, the Sun-god. Surely, there was some way in which the Sun held sway over the events of the time. Solar activity displays a minimum that yields to a series of short-lived maximums as this cycle opens.

Comets were fairly plentiful in the records of this period. In 1200 BC, Assyrian records take note of a comet in Gemini, while Greece notes one in Ares. Troy's observations indicate a comet in 1194 BC in Taurus. Babylonian records say that one was seen in the north in 1140 BC and Chinese chronicles claim one in the 11th Century BC. A Chinese oracle bone was inscribed with what appears to be a sighting of a supernova in 1112 BC. Comets were returning the lost mass of the solar wind, as long-range forces, through the system of fields, triggered a supernova.

There are another nine similar cycles in history between 1600 BC and AD 1600. One of the most important observations of these cycles is that they take place when civilizations are at their height and solar activity reaches a maximum. The most important lesson that we have ignored is that during these times nomads, those closer to Nature, are favored by the events that transpire. Moreover, these hunter-gathers, with no permanent dwellings, no social hiearchy, and frequently herding animals, often help to bring prominent civilizations to their end, though there is evidence that other events had weakened these civilizations. When these nomads become settled they too come to an end. Examples, of such people are the Huns, Vandals, Aztecs, Incas, the Arab bedouins of the Muslim conquests, the Mongols, and a myriad of others. The following section is but one example, the Huns, who are part of the AD 250 to 450 period.

Related News Stories

  • Another Mycenaean "Lost" City is Found Partially Underwater, and Partially Under Soil and Vegetation. This is a typical scene for this renewal cycle, as discussed in part on this web page. The Mycenaeans were nearly wiped from history at that time. The full story of the time can be seen in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About (Chapter Three). See the Sciencedaily.com article.

  • Homer's Odyssey is Now Seen to be More Factual than Scholars Originally Thought. See the World-science.com article. This poem was written to reflect a time in history when major events took place around the globe, ending cities, cultures and civlizations in the 1250-1050 BC renewal cycle, as discussed on this web page, and in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About (Chapter Three).

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