The Cosmic Egg -- NASA photo of the visible Universe

"Our task must be to free ourselves -- by widening
our circle of compassion to embrace all living creatures and the whole
of nature and its beauty."
Albert Einstein


Keywords: exobiology, astrobiology, cosmology, life in the Universe, entropy and life, physical constants

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. This book is now published with the full scope and references, and is available for purchase. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.



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Introduction


There is much more on this topic in The Vital Vastness. In fact, the central theme is that much more is alive in the Universe than we have imagined, and life is essential to the stability and dynamics of the cosmos, and our planet Earth. Moreover, life is a dominant force and is an inevitable outcome of the laws of physics (e.g., the physical constants). Here is only a very small portion of the various discussions in the book.


Entropy and Life

In Tome Two of The Vital Vastness -- Volume One we find this discussion.

"Entropy is the scientific term used to describe the amount of randomness or disorder in processes and systems. In the physical sciences the concept is central to the descriptions of heat-transfer properties, or the thermodynamics of molecules, heat engines, and the Universe as a whole. Also known as the Second Law of Thermodynamics, entropy implies that all processes operate at less than 100% efficiency when energy is transferred or utilized. In the classical sense, entropy is a measure of that portion of energy unable to produce useful work (or the unavailable energy).

Another aspect of entropy is an object's or system's tendency to move toward greater disorder, decay or chaos as time passes. For example, a house will eventually fall to pieces if not maintained. Along the "arrow of time" this process is said to be irreversible. That is, the house will not spontaneously reassemble itself.

Statistical thermodynamics states that entropy is a measure of microscopic disorder or the uncertainty associated with the microscopic state. In information theory it is a measure of uncertainty or lack of information. In short, entropy states that no process in Nature involving chemistry or physics will occur spontaneously without some loss of energy and order. However, many facts call these assumptions into question as a universally applicable law, especially with regard to biological systems.

After discussing some of the findings reported in the literature, the discussion continues.

Two recent attempts, dissipative structures and information theory, have also been inadequate. Life as dissipative structures tries to explain the increase in order of life by increasing entropy in the environment. By releasing mass and energy into the environment dissipative structures have the capacity for self-organization. Entropy is locally circumvented for an increase globally.

Meanwhile, dissipative structures can evolve in two directions: least or highest entropy. It does not explain why genetic systems should produce more order, just that it is possible. Much discloses that this dissipative-structure approach is not capable of explaining the order. For one, life and the environment have evolved in a mutually reinforcing way that has brought stability to both (Gaia Hypothesis). Earlier in this chapter we witnessed how life reduces entropy in its surroundings, not the opposite. The presence of life produces more balanced and stable soils, which produces more nutritious and healthy foods. This in turn lessens mental and physical diseases and disorders, including social disorder and antisocial behavior. There is a more balanced environment with life, which was examined in terms of air ions, ecosystems and even the stability of the Earth's magnetic field and electrical environment. The chapters which follow show that life produces even more stability, which can even be observed in human history and the Universe as a whole. Aside from our lack of information on human participation (and the Uncertainty Principle, and EPR Paradox), a scientist comments on our lack of knowledge: "We do not know nearly enough about organisms as chemical systems to be able to tell whether their functioning as dissipative structures has anything to do with the creation or even maintenance of inherited order."

Information theory or communication theory has been applied to explain the order in biological systems, but also fails. Information theory is a branch of probability theory that has been provided to measure the flow of information from an information source to a destination. In the evolution of biological order the gene is said to be the source of information, which through mutation and natural selection produces new species, which is the destination. A scientist comments on its failure: "Communications theory allows us to make qualitative and (in principle) quantitative measurements of biological order, but it cannot explain the origin of the order it measures."

Changes in the environment could more easily produce disorder in the information (genetic heredity), yet we find increasing order. Consider a photocopy being copied, and then the copy being copied, and so on, being continually recopied. Surely its information becomes less and less clear with each copy. A certain sequence of cards that is ordered and shuffled will certainly more likely become disordered than more ordered. Yet, evidence discloses that genes are shuffled and always lead to more order. The reason is clear: "Living beings prevail at a number of levels of organization above the molecular one. The existence and the reproduction of these levels imply a state of improbability, a kind of 'information' which cannot be dealt with by the current theory of information."

Evolutionary history conflicts with the Second Law in a number of ways. The number of species, structural complexity, diversity of species, and acceleration of energy flow have all increased with time. The increase in complexity is measured in informational, structural, energetic, and flow component terms. Diversity or more species (heterogeneity) creates stability. Conversely, simplicity or less species (homogeneity) can be lethal. At the microscopic level many interactions are essential to the stability of complex organic molecules that depend on the more complex (noncovalent) chemical bonds. Cooperative (symmetrical) interaction is essential for coevolution, which is abundantly displayed in the fossil record."

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The Universe is Alive

In Tome Four of The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, we find this discussion:

"The Universe is fundamentally biological. Even the Urey-Miller experiment that simulated the theorized early pre-life conditions on Earth, and produced amino acids, suggests this. The ammonia used was obtained by a process involving hydrogen of bio-origin, and the methane was also biological in origin. Non-biological catalysts would be poisoned almost instantaneously by sulfur gases under pre-life conditions. What this means is that most of the material in interstellar grains must be organic or life itself would have been impossible. The spectrum for all grains along the line of sight from the galactic center to the Earth is very much like that of dry bacteria. Either the grains are bacteria or are organic grains in proportions like bacteria (amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids and polysaccharides). Therefore, both theoretically and observationally, organic constituents fit the observations.

Organic materials or bacteria would easily align in magnetic fields, and could produce superconducting surfaces that would generate filaments. Organic materials or bacteria could more easily produce the variety of objects in the Universe than inorganic or non-biological materials. As with so much of its constituents, the Universe itself is fundamentally biological. In fact, so much is this the case that life constitutes a physical law; it had to arise, it was an inevitable result of the laws of physics as they exist. The difficulty with accepting such a perspective in scientific circles is described:

"If this were an entirely scientific matter, there is little doubt from the evidence that the case for a fundamentally biological universe would be regarded as substantially proven. The reason why the scientific community passionately resists this conclusion is that biological systems are teleological, which is to say purposeful. And if we admit the Universe to be inhabited by a vast number of purposeful components then the thought cannot be far away that perhaps the Universe itself might be purposive, a conclusion that not only stands astronomy immediately on its head, by making a large fraction of our efforts futile, but which offends the tenets on which modern science presents itself to the public. It is here where the biggest issue ultimately for science may lie."

Bacterial membranes act as one-way systems with respect to electric charges and chemical flow. Some bacteria contain an ordered (ferromagnetic) domain that enables orientation in a external magnetic field (see sections 1.5 and 2.2). Wavelength dependence of polarization produced by alignment with the magnetic field agree "excellently" with the data curve of iron-bacteria. This also evokes the idea of primordial magnetic fields, which in turn suggests the idea that the Universe itself is teleological."

What is often overlooked is that the objects in the Universe, as well as the Universe as a whole, have life-like characteristics, but the mind-set and language used to describe the phenomena prevent that realization.

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The Semantics of the Current Mind-Set

"When it comes to the order we observe it should make us think more philosophically about why. Einstein's equations can just as easily describe emptiness, as well as galaxies and quasars. Mass and energy are evenly distributed, as occurs with the microwave radiation in the Universe, which varies no more than a few parts in 50,000. Why is there anything in the Universe at all? Why should widely separated regions of the Universe be so similar when there are so many ways to be different?

In extragalactic astronomy, part of the problem concerns the fact that it is an observationally dominated science, and therefore, tends to be descriptive rather than quantitative. This "orderliness" of the Universe has been repeatedly commented upon, and the following quotes will serve only as examples which reflect the current mind-set's contrast.

"Contemporary science when interpreting the existing reality does not like to ask the question 'why,' and it has completely dropped the question 'what for' from its vocabulary. The Anthropic Principle in cosmology has again focused our attention on the question 'what for.' I think we should not be ashamed of the return to that old question, which seemed so old fashioned for a long time. What was pure philosophy is now science."

"It is clear that I espouse here that Baconian principle of induction of general laws from a body of facts. It would seem obviously that if a scientist only reasons deductively from known laws then he or she can never do more than recover those laws, and will never discover anything fundamentally new."

"Indeed, if the history of science is any guide, theory and observations have never exactly been in phase."

"Cosmology has always been -- and will by definition always remain -- a borderland between science and philosophy -- some would say a religion."

After more than three centuries of Newtonian gravitational theory, built into even our observational perspectives and relativity theory, our observations will yield only gravitational descriptions of the observed phenomena. The heart of the dilemma of today's theoretical panorama emerges from such a mind-set. The problem is that we see what we have been taught to see, but is it really reality?

The expansion of the Universe's radius occurs at a constant rate known as Hubble's Constant. Evidence also shows that the Earth has expanded at the same constant. When "expand" or "expansion" are used it is merely a philosophical perspective, because grow or growth could explain the observations just as well. In fact, one can find these words are synonyms in any thesaurus.

The formation of very bright (ultraluminous infrared) galaxies involves the interaction or merger -- a symbiosis or consuming -- of two molecular gas-rich spiral galaxies. The funneling of molecular clouds toward a merger nucleus accounts for nuclear starburst and provides fuel -- food -- in the form of gas and stellar remnants. A possible evolutionary connection between these galaxies and quasars is that consuming the dust causes it to evolve into a quasar. Conversely, the dust could be ejected by the quasar as part of the evolution towards forming a galaxy. Furthermore, the dust could very well be organic grains or even bacteria. Again, all of the terms commonly used could be replaced with words that give the Universe a more life-like character.

Observations of quasars and these galaxies suggest that the majority of quasars are formed through galaxies consuming each other, or as usually described, by collisions or coalescence. Again, the use of certain words is a matter of semantics, emerging from a philosophical perspective. Consuming or eating (even cannibalism) are biological terms, and therefore, their use is discouraged. The other possibility is that they are ejected or given birth, if you will, as discussed. Large galaxies are believed to consume smaller galaxies and then grow in size. Likewise, twin or double stars can lead to the larger stars consuming smaller stars. Stellar evolution is the predominant mass loss mechanism for the smaller nuclei, while collisions dominate the larger nuclei. One could describe this as the smaller stars or nuclei growing, while the larger stars or nuclei are reproducing or consuming other stars or galaxies. One could say that the Universe is a continually fruitful, huge buffet.

All quasars begin in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy phase. Blazars and Seyfert I's could also arise as the final product of this evolution. Ontogeny, the development of an individual organism, could also be just as descriptive. Moreover, in the evolution of the biological world the development of an individual organism is said to show its evolutionary stages (ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny).

Double nuclei and multinuclei galaxies confirm that the Universe goes from a dense condition to a rarefied one, and is again like life. Some galaxies (i.e., Markarians, etc.) have similar brightness, and about the same strong emission line nuclei or knots in a common envelope. Approximately one hundred multinuclei galaxies have been noted that are not the result of the interaction or merger of two independent galaxies. Close-by galaxies with a single nucleus may have originated from multinuclei galaxies. One astrophysicist notes their life-like character, because they "are formed from a single maternal body, as a result of its divisions, in analogy to what takes place in the biological cell." It is rare to find a scientist who is willing to use biological terms when describing anything outside of the Earth's biosphere.

The galaxy Arp 220 shines brighter than 100 Milky Ways in the infrared. Two closely spaced sources of intense radiation buried deep within the galaxy's core are present. Astronomers have found that four out of ten known ultraluminous galaxies have what appear to be close pairs of nuclei. Evidence suggests that this arrangement occurs in all ten. Such an observation has suggested to some astronomers that it is in the late stages of a galaxy merger, or in other words, the consuming of one galaxy by another. Other interpretations are that they are ejecting matter or splitting into two galaxies, analogous to a biological cell, giving birth to new galaxies."

There is much more that is life-like, but the current mind-set in science often prevents this understanding from being reached.

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The Physical Constants

In the Conclusions of The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos we find this discussion:

"The basic features of galaxies, stars, planets and the everyday world are essentially determined by a few physical constants. Several aspects of our Universe, which seem to be requirements for the existence of life, depend rather delicately on what appear to be "coincidences" among the physical constants. But, are they really coincidences?

Interesting relationships exist between the different scales. For example, the dimensions of a planet are the geometric mean of the size of the Universe and the size of an atom. The mass of a human is the geometric mean of the mass of a planet and the mass of a proton. Relationships such as these might be considered coincidences if one did not acknowledge that they can be deduced from known physical laws. The possibility of life as we know it emerging in the Universe depends on the values of a few basic physical constants that are remarkably sensitive to mathematical values.

The same set of laws give rise to simple crystals, as well as permit systems as complex and intricate as living organisms. It is easy to envision a Universe with objects such as stars and planets. However, to extend the laws to include complex structures, such as polymers and DNA, requires an exceptionally fine tuned set of laws.

Moreover, the evidence indicates that the variety and complexity of the real world is even more extraordinary with a hierarchy of living things. Life permeates all of space, it is built into the very substance of the Universe, and has even brought about its own self-consciousness: we humans. Yet, we have done little, in the scientific realm, to ask one question: Why? And the reason is that most scientists are afraid to admit that the Universe is purposeful and fundamentally biological. A scientist comments on the mind-set involved:

"Every advance in fundamental physics seems to uncover yet another facet of order. A professional scientist is so immersed in unraveling the laws of Nature that he forgets how remarkable it is that there are laws in the first place. Because science presupposes rational laws, the scientist rarely stops to think about why these laws exist."

Consider some of these laws and what they mean to life. If electromagnetism did not exist then there would be no atoms, no chemistry, no life, and no heat and light from the Sun. If there were no strong force then nuclei would not have formed, and therefore, nothing would be. Likewise, if the weak force and gravity did not exist, then you would not be reading this, nor would any form of life be here. Yet, these four very different forces (and no others), each vital to all of the complex structures that make up the Universe, are so fine tuned that they all combine to make a single superforce.

The complex structures throughout the Universe are the direct result of the balance or competition of these four forces. Where a tightly interlocking competition occurs, the structure of the system depends delicately on the strengths of these forces (i.e., the fundamental constants). If these constants differed by only a few parts in say a million trillion little, if anything, would survive, particularly life, and especially, human life. The charges of the proton and electron have been measured in experiments, and have been found to be precisely equal and opposite. If this were not so, then the charge imbalance would cause every object in the Universe to explode. The Universe would consist of an ether, something like thin gas, and nothing else.

In order for matter to remain electrically neutral the electron and proton must exactly balance in opposite charges. If the charges between the electron and the proton where to differ by as little as one part in 100 billion, everything on Earth would fly apart. Larger objects like the Earth and the Sun would require an even more precise balance of one part in a billion billion. Yet, Nature has adjusted things even better than that accuracy. If it had not, the cosmos would have been uninhabitable throughout all space and time. The fine-tuned laws of Nature are directly responsible for our, as well as everything's, existence!

The heat of the Sun keeps the Earth from rapidly cooling down to the near zero temperature of space. It is the source of all food (photosynthesis), and nearly all energy on Earth. Yet, the Sun's existence hangs by a thread.

The Sun is possible only because certain physical properties are present. The neutron outweighs the proton by a fraction of a percent. If it did not, the Sun or any other star like it would not shine for more than a mere few hundred years. The strong force is just strong enough to hold the deuteron together. However, if it were only slightly weaker, the deuteron would not be, and stars like the Sun could not generate nuclear energy. Conversely, had the strong force been slightly stronger the generation of energy would be violently unstable.

These precise properties bring about the Sun, and the temperature of the Sun matches the absorptive properties of chlorophyll. If this were not so, then no chemical reaction capable of utilizing the Sun's energy would exist, making life impossible. All of these conditions balance perfectly, and make life possible.

If gravity's force were to differ from what it is by only one part in 1040, stars like our Sun would not form. If it differed by only one part, there would only be giant stars. Such giant stars would very likely not support life.

If a certain energy level in the oxygen nucleus (how fast the nucleus vibrates) were 0.5% higher than it is, life could not exist. That is, all the carbon produced in a star would burn immediately to oxygen. Thereby, no carbon would be left to make living things.

Likewise, water would not be. Moreover, water has properties that are strikingly unusual and not found in any other liquid. These characteristics make it indispensable to every living creature science calls living.

The properties of water are miraculous. Water is extremely adept at dissolving and transporting substances. It is essential to the ultimate source of all food on Earth, photosynthesis, making it the primary source of oxygen in the atmosphere. Water's ability to retain great amounts of heat while only undergoing slight changes in temperature (i.e., high specific heat) keeps the climate at a level comfortable for life. Its peculiar ability to expand upon freezing is what prevents most of it from permanently freezing solid. Water is the best solvent and has the largest dipole moment of any commonly occurring molecule as well, making it ideal for biological reactions. Yet, had the constants not been so fine tuned, water could not exist.

One constant, omega, defies present physical theory. Omega is the ratio of the average density of the Universe to the force that is needed to gravitationally contain the Universe's (Hubble) "expansion" or growth. However, observations show that as objects get larger their density drops. This particular relation and the observed cosmic density discloses an omega of 0.0002, which contradicts the Big Bang theory that says omega should be 1. If the average density drops as size increases, an average density for the whole Universe cannot be defined. In a Universe with that little matter, gravitation will be so weak that the difference between Newtonian gravity and general relativity would be of little account; yet, the difference is real.

Particle physicists suggest that dark matter must be present in order to reach a satisfying explanation that would create an omega of 1. Heavy neutrinos, axions, and WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) could provide the mass needed. Again, the problem is that there is no real evidence that these particles actually exist. They are simply derived from imagination and mathematical formulas. For the Universe to exist under the tenets of the Big Bang as it is normally envisioned, then omega had to be 1 and dark matter is required.

Such fine tuning is hard to imagine within the context of the early universe. Science generally refers to this enigma as "the problem of prearrangement." How could these limits have "known" to adjust themselves so precisely that when everything settled the cosmological constant would turn out to be virtually zero? This is a question science is now asking, but with hesitation and hypothetical theorems. The answer may be what are called wormholes, which are connections between two large and otherwise smooth regions of space-time. The Unified Field is a wormhole, but unlike present assumptions they are not only microscopic (the mathematics even indicate that large visible wormholes could form). The small value of the cosmological constant is telling us that a remarkably precise and totally unexpected relationship exists, and also unknown physics.

Life requires chemical elements heavier than hydrogen and helium -- biochemistry requires such heavier elements. Likewise, hydrogen and helium are not capable of forming solids and liquids at physiological temperatures. Stars synthesize these heavier, crucial elements.

For a long time it was known that there is a barrier in the way of these reactions, and no one knew how Nature found its way around that barrier. Finally, it was discovered that these reactions occur because there are two separate resonances between nuclei in red giant stars. Were it not for this double correspondence, the cosmos would consist solely of hydrogen and helium making life impossible. Likewise, resonances between helium, beryllium and carbon were discovered because we knew we were here and so they had to match, though the original data did not reveal the resonance.

The Earth can be thought of as a niche in the Solar System, a niche in the Milky Way -- like a flower finding the right place to sprout its seeds. But, how did life find out that this planet was a proper niche? If this time is right, how did life's organization arise "now"? How did the seeds of life get here, and what are the "seeds" of life?

Energy and matter, the seeds of life, are everywhere. That is how the seeds of life got here. They have been here all along. Contemplating this fantastic Earth one might consider it an immense seed that has bore fruit. These fine tuned constants made it all possible.

The Earth abides in a region of space where the stars are not packed too densely so that there is the danger of stars colliding. Many safe regions such as this can be found throughout space. Why do such niches exist at all? If stars were more densely packed everywhere throughout the Universe, life would not exist.

The characteristic size of galaxies allows for such roominess, had the stars been greater in number the Universe would be uninhabitable. A guiding mechanism, such as a system of fields, and fine tuned constants are essential. Furthermore, the dimensions of the cosmos are very large, had it been smaller the galaxies would overlap and again the Universe would be uninhabitable. Indeed, it is a symbiotic Universe -- a Universe of, by and for life. One scientist expresses this:

"A major revolution in thought is in the offing. Whatever the explanation turns out to be for that massive series of coincidences whereby life arose in the Universe, it is not going to be simple. Each and every one of them flows from the laws of Nature, and it is to these principles themselves that our thinking must turn. Life obeys the laws of physics -- this much is a truism. What is new and incomprehensible here is that in some extraordinary way the reverse seems also to be true -- that the laws of physics conform themselves to life."

Some of us would not even marvel at the idea that these naturally occurring constants exist, and that without them the Universe would not allow for life's existence. Some are even trying to explain them away as coincidences. This mind-set shows how much of a religion science can be for some people.

Furthermore, more objects are alive in the Universe than what we have already accepted as living. The planets, Solar System, galaxies and the Universe also display characteristics that can be considered living, as well as harbor the life forms we accept as living. And then, here we are literally the self-consciousness of the Universe, and able to marvel at our own existence. We have not, however, completely accepted the purposefulness or teleological nature of the Universe. Life itself is the highest physical law!"

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Related News Stories



  • Finally the Question is Being Asked Whether Fluid Motions (Dynamics) can Explain Quantum Mechanics and Describe Unification. One of the biggest barriers in science is typically not giving the mechanical forces and/or intergalactic fields a role in in astrophysics and unification, but this research is contemplating their role. See the Physicsworld.com article.


  • More Strong Evidence for Intergalactic Field System Emerges -- as Discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two (chapters 5-7). See the Physorg.com article on our plasma-filled galaxy, the Space.com's article on two neighbouring galaxies connected to our galaxy by streams of plasma., and Sciencedaily.com's article on a giant particle accelerator seen in a galactic cluster.


  • Further Evidence of Intergalactic Fields -- A Cosmic Web -- is Uncovered by the X-Ray Observatory XMM-Newton. See the Phyorg.com article. [note: the article claims that this reveals some of the missing mass in the Universe, but this is and has been an ongoing process in the formation of new galaxies, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two].


  • Gamma-Ray Burst Coming from the Middle of "Nowhere" is Further Evidence of Intergalactic Fields. See the Phyorg.com article and the Discovery.com article.


  • Intergalactic Particle Accelerator is More Evidence of Intergalactic Fields. See the NewScientist.com article.


  • Likewise, the Milky Way Shows the Effects of Interstellar Fields in that it Appears to be Fractal in its Arrangement. Fractals are spiral-like patterns, such as that found in life, like the Chambered Nautilis and DNA -- i.e., also life-like. See the NewScientist.com article.

  • Pre-Life Molecules are also Found in Comets. See the innovation-report.com article. See the next entry.

  • A Microwave Study of the Universe (Metagalaxy) Shows Much More Order than Theorized, Where Galaxies Lie Along an "Axis of Evil." This completely contradicts the standard model of the universe. The article also addresses the fact that in at least some cases stars are too close to black holes for the supermassive theory of black holes. These aspects of the universe and black holes are discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and are expected of the Field-dynamical Model. This "Axis of Evil" is very much like a ring around a planet. Black holes are not supermassive, but a field with time-varying acceleration (the reason there is an unexpected radiation emitted), and this is why stars can be very close to the black holes. Moreover, there is a ring-like structure that is perpendicular to a dipole structure, typical of the Field-dynamical Model. The whole thing raises questions about the Big Bang theory and shows much more order than originally thought. See the Pravada news report. [Source: Chown, M. (2005) 'Axis of evil' warps cosmic background. New Scientist 188(2522):19]. Also see the following entries.

  • The Buliding Blocks of Life are Throughout the Universe. It truly is a living universe as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos. See the Physorg.com article, and the MSNBC story.

  • Extrasolar Planet Found to Have Carbon and Oxygen -- Could There Be Life? See the Hubble Newscenter news release.

  • The Early Universe was Much More Mature and Ordered Than Previously Thought. See the Universe Today story.

  • The Living Universe has been Mapped, as a Three Dimensional Map of the Protein Universe. The Universe is filled with protein that's ready to produce life. See the SpaceDaily.com story.

  • A Huge Intergalactic Plasma Cloud that Stretches More than Six Million Light-Years Across has been Discovered. This is to be expected from the intergalactic system of fields discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physorg.com article.

  • The Evidence is in -- The Universe is Permiated with Huge Magnetic Fields. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two as a system of intergalactic fields, and is behind the inflation of the Universe, its possible elliptical shape and the origin, to some extent, of magnetic fields in galaxies and galactic clusters. Moreover, the magnetic fields cannot not be due to dynamo effects, as they occur to early in the life of objects, such as galaxies. See the Astrophysics abstract and artilce, and this is also discussed in the journal New Scientist [September 2, 2006, 19(:2567), pp.28-31]. See the next entry.

  • Star Formation Shows the Field-dynamical Model Structure. A donut shaped torus, a ring and jets at the poles are very similar to the magnetospheres and polar winds of the planets, and the major star mass surrounding the center (black hole), the spiral arms and the jets of galaxies. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, and is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model. See the physorg.com, and the msnbc.msn.com article.

  • The young universe was thought to have very little structure, but a new observation shows a cluster of thousands of galaxies from the early universe that is highly structured. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two there is evidence that intergallactic fields exist and permiate the universe, allowing for structure without the proposed gravitational scenarios. This is further evidence of that intergalactic field structure. See the Universetoady.com article. See also the following entry.

  • The Chandra observatory has found an intergalactic "web" of rivers of matter. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Voume Two and is an intergalactic system of fields that prevade the universe and result in the formation of galaxies and galactic clusters. See the Spacedaily.com article, and the Spacedaily.com on missing matter.

  • Finally, there is a physiscist that has a different explantion for the expansion of the Universe that does not involve "dark energy". As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two this is due to a system of intergalactic fields and the field-dynamical model of celestial objects. This physicist says that it is a leak in gravity. See the MSNBC.com article

  • Finally, a Scientist Says that Dark Matter and Dark Energy are Different Apsects of a Single Unknown Force. This very thing was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and the unknown force is a system of intergalactic fields. This scientist claims that it is the result of a scalar field, as discussed in the book. See the Astrophysics abstarct, and PhysOrg story (you will have to register to see the whole story).

  • Filaments that Connect to Galaxy Formation are Thought to be Dark Matter. That is the hypothesis of the conventional theory, but as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two these filaments are the result of an intergalactic system of fields. Scientists are not considering this, because it would tend to look like more order than proposed and might contribute to the problem of "prearrangement." See the Physicsweb.org article.

  • Gamma-Ray Bursters (GRBs) are Now Seen as Magnetically Driven. In The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two it was theorized that GRBs are the result of mass being accelerated along intergalactic, electromagnetic fields and the fields of celestial objects. See the msnbc.msm.com news release.

  • Finally its Being Said -- The Idea of Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the Result of Flawed Physics. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and what is really being observed has to do with an Intergalactic System of Fields. See the physorg.com article. See the previous entry.

  • Finally, there is a physiscist that has a different explantion for the expansion of the Universe that does not involve "dark energy". As discussed inThe Vital Vastness -- Volume Two this is due to a system of intergalactic fields and the field-dynamical model of celestial objects. This physicist says that it is a leak in gravity. See the MSNBC.com article

  • Finally, a Scientist Says that Dark Matter and Dark Energy are Different Apsects of a Single Unknown Force. This very thing was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and the unknown force is a system of intergalactic fields. This scientist claims that it is the result of a scalar field, as discussed in the book. See the Astrophysics abstarct, and PhysOrg story (you will have to register to see the whole story).

  • The Milky Way Ejects Stars into Intergalactic Space. Just like the ejection of material from planets there is ejection from galaxies -- both are in the Field-dynamical Model, and so, this could be expected. See the Space.com story.

  • Two Merging Galaxies are Surrounded By Star Birth. Had this been anything that was already considered non-living, this would have been described as reproduction, in the biological sense. See the Universetoday.com story.

  • A Study Shows that there is a Slender Stream of Stars Flowing Over the Milky Way. This reveals the fact that there is a intergalactic field-system, as do other observations. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physorg.com article. See also the next few entries.

  • Intergalactic field system is referred to as "Rivers of Gravity." The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed a strutural arrangement that connects galaxies with each other. This structural arrangement is noted in other phenomena, and is discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos in Tome Five. See the Chandra news story.

  • A Microwave Study of the Universe (Metagalaxy) Shows Much More Order than Theorized, Where Galaxies Lie Along an "Axis of Evil." This completely contradicts the standard model of the universe. The article also addresses the fact that in at least some cases stars are too close to black holes for the supermassive theory of black holes. These aspects of the universe and black holes are discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and are expected of the Field-dynamical Model. This "Axis of Evil" is very much like a ring around a planet. Black holes are not supermassive, but a field with time-varying acceleration (the reason there is an unexpected radiation emitted), and this is why stars can be very close to the black holes. Moreover, there is a ring-like structure that is perpendicular to a dipole structure, typical of the Field-dynamical Model. The whole thing raises questions about the Big Bang theory and shows much more order than originally thought. See the Pravada news report. [Source: Chown, M. (2005) 'Axis of evil' warps cosmic background. New Scientist 188(2522):19]. Also see the following entries.

  • Galaxies are Four Times More Common in the Direction of Gamma-Ray Bursts Than in the Direction of Quasars. Again, this could be expected of a system of intergalactic fields that produce the gamma-ray bursts. See the Malaysiansun.com, and the Universetoday.com articles. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • The Universe is Filled with Filaments and Aligned Galaxies Revealing a Intergalactic System of Fields. There are filaments -- long streams of light (particles) -- that stretch at least 490,000 light years across. Galaxies are also aligned across large regions of the universe. These observations confirm the discussion in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physorg.com articles on giant filaments and aligned galaxies. Note that the article on aligned galaxies suggests that it is the effects of dark matter, an unproven and unprovable assumption. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • Huge Milky Way-Sized "Tunnel" is Found Streaming from a Galactic Cluster. The so-called tunnel appears to be ejected from the galactic cluster's central region. While the article suggests that it is the result of "cosmic battles" between black holes, it can more easily be described as an intergalactic field, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Redorbit.com article. See also the previous and the next entries.

  • Cosmic Blob of Galaxies and Gas (Plasma) From the Largest Known Object in the Universe. Again, this conforms with an intergalactic system of fields. See the CNN.com story. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • The Case of the Missing Black Holes? More Evidence of a System of Intergalactic Fields. Looking a the background radiation with X-ray instruments shows X-rays, but no associated black holes, believed to be the source of the X-rays. Meanwhile, the intergalactic fields are like particle accelerators, which produce X-rays as a by-product of acceleration. See the Universetoday.com article. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • An Intergalactic Particle Accelerator is Observed Coming from the Heart of the Milky Way. While the scientists in the article are quoted describing this as the effect of a supernova or even a black hole, it is only conventional thought that makes them reach this conclusion. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two there is evidence of a web of intergalactic fields. See the articles from PhysOrg.com and PhysOrg.com on Gamma-rays. See also the previous and the next entries.

  • Black Holes are Much More Numerous than Previously Thought. Moreover, there are point sources of X-rays and they are not scattered across the sky -- what was once thought to be a truly diffuse cosmic x-ray background radiation, actually comes from point sources. This contradicts the proposed scenario of a Big Bang and the gravitational collapse of matter into black holes. It does, however, strengthen the notion that there is a system of intergalactic fields, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Technocrat.net article, and the Penn State news release.

  • Finally, Evidence that Magnetic Processes are at Work in Black Holes and their Accretion Disks. This was proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and reveals the Field-dynamical Model of black holes and galaxies, quasars and neutron stars. See the Spaceref.com. [note: there are links to more information]. Also see the previous two entries.

  • Finally, Evidence for Magnetic Processes are at Work in Black Holes and their Accreation Disks. This was proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and reveals the Field-dynamical Model of black holes and galaxies, quasars and neutron stars. This conclusively shows that black hole phenomena is much more than supermassive and driven by gravitation. See the Spaceref.com. (note: there are links to more information). [source: Miller, .M., et al (2006) The magnetic nature of disk accretion onto black holes. Nature 441:953-955]

  • The Chandra X-Ray Observatory Has Proven That Black Holes Have Far Reaching Effects. Energetic plumes come off of black holes that stretch hundreds of thousands of light years. Again, the proposed supermassiveness is supposed to attract matter, not push it away. In The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two a discussion is presented that there are interstellar and intergalactic field systems along which plasma flows forming stars and galaxies. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Another Blow for the Big Bang Theory -- The Microwave Background is Too Smooth. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, and is the result of an intergalactic system of fields. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Once again the Big Bang is Being Questioned as there is a Crisis of Assumptions in Cosmology. See the Physorg.com story.

  • Just as the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM), and Other Planets Have Ejected Objects, The Milky Way has Ejected a Star into Intergalactic Space. See the Universetoday.com story, and the Physorg.com article. See next entry.

  • Dark Energy Signals a System of Fields. Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations support the idea that the Universe is pervaded by a mysterious force often called "dark energy". Albert Einstein proposed this in what he called the cosmological constant. See the full story in a news release from NASA. This so-called dark energy may be evidence of a system of fields (interplanetary, interstellar and intergalactic), as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. For a related story on the cosmological constant.

  • The Living Universe has been Mapped, as a Three Dimensional Map of the Protein Universe. The Universe is filled with protein that's ready to produce life. See the SpaceDaily.com story.

  • Microwave Studies Reveal Guided Galaxy Formation and "Inflation" (i.e., growth). Again, the knee-jerk reaction of scientists is to suppose that it is matter, mass and gravity that explains everything, but the truth is there is a system of fields guiding matter in the formation of galaxies. Also, there is a tendency to use non-biological terms, such as inflation, rather than growth. Notwithstanding, the evidence can be interpreted differently, see the full Science Daily story.

  • A Giant Intergalactic Cobweb. This is what NASA is calling a vast array of cosmic helium clouds that fill the void between galaxies. The discoveries where made after analyses from the Hubble Telescope and the spacecraft FUSE. As written in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two there is evdience, now this included, that there is a system of intergalactic fields, guiding galaxy formation. See the full NASA news story.

  • Galaxy Survey Brings into Question Dark Matter Hypothesis. The amount of the so-called dark matter to gravitationally contain the universe comes up short. The survey shows that there is only about one-third of the matter and energy required to keep the universe flat. Since dark matter cannot keep the universe flat, than an additional force must be present. See the Los Alamos National Laboratory report. In The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two evidence is provided that there are intergalactic fields that provide the extra force.

  • Two Merging Galaxies are Surrounded By Star Birth. Had this been anything that was already considered non-living, this would have been described as reproduction, in the biological sense. See the Universetoday.com story.

  • The Seeds of Life Are Found Around a Young Star. The primary ingredients for DNA and protein have observed around a young star in a region typical of where terrestrial (rocky) planets tend to form. This is yet another observation that shows it is truly a living universe. See the Physorg.com article.


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