This is a composite photo from NASA.


Keywords: planets, Field-dynamical Planetary Model, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, planetary rings, celestial objects

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. This book is now published with the full scope and references, and is available for purchase. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.



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Introduction

At first glance it may appear that the variety of celestial objects -- the planets, comets, stars, galaxies, clusters, and super clusters -- are very different objects. However, when certain features are noted, they reveal a remarkable similarity at the phenomenological level. They all have polar phenomena, such as inflowing and outflowing winds similar to aurora, phenomena along mid-latitudes, and rings that are usually equatorial. The Vital Vastness reveals these similarities. This examination of observations, gotten from space probes and ground-based instruments, uncovers what is referred to as the Field-dynamical Model, as noted for the Earth (Field- dynamical Earth Model; FEM). Here are a few excerpts on the planets, as well as a brief overview of other celestial objects, though there is much more in the book. Also, there is also a web page on Planetary Influences on Solar Activity that reveals other aspects of this model.


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The Planets


Mercury


The discovery of a magnetic field on Mercury came as a big surprise. A substantial north-south magnetic field of internal origin is observed (intrinsic dipole). The inner core region of Mercury should have solidified or froze out early in its history, leaving only a thin shell-like region. This immediately offers a problem for dynamo theory, because it is: "not considered by most dynamo theorists as a probable source region for traditional planetary dynamo processes to be active. Unfortunately, there are no adequate dynamo theories which predict either the existence or the characteristics of a planetary magnetic field. The existence of an active dynamo places certain constraints on the present-day internal structure and temperature. The most basic constraint is that there must now exist an electrically conducting region in the interior in which electrical currents flow, driven by some energy source."

Radio emissions have been known to disappear during certain phases, indicating a time-varying component. Mercury's slow rotation on its axis, temperature profiles, and radio emissions do not match the dynamo model at all. Yet, the facts clearly match what could be expected of the Field-dynamical Model.

The magnetosphere strongly resembles a miniature of the Earth's with everything happening more quickly and repeating more often, because it is closer to the Sun. It also contains sodium, which may help generate electricity. This may be the reason that the electric field in the magnetosphere is much greater than that of the Earth; another completely unsuspected observation. In addition, trapped particles are too dense for what is expected of the Mercurian ionosphere. All of these observations indicate that Mercury, like the Earth, has a dynamical mechanism that generates charged particles and electricity.

Likewise, six-second fluctuations of large fluxes of electrons and protons were observed, and came as a big surprise. "Such well-defined structure was certainly not expected in the streams of high-energy particles, and it will probably be quite difficult to find a physical mechanism that will accelerate particles with opposite charges simultaneously." The Fields of the Field-dynamical Model are adept at doing exactly this, which demonstrates that Mercury's dynamics result from such a model.

Another surprise is that auroras also occur on Mercury. The polar cusps display high levels of helium whose abundance is maintained at a steady state. This observation is unexplained, because a "sink for [hydrogen]" is needed to explain the fact that hydrogen is relatively low compared to helium. However, this is something that could be predicted from the hydrogen-fusion model with hydrogen plasma accelerated into the core, and the subsequent production of helium. The aurora is also time-varying, but being so close to the Sun the auroras should be continuous, according to present models.

In spite of Mercury's weak magnetic field, the magnetosphere has a stronger electric field than that of Earth's. Aurora-like phenomena were observed along the 30o latitudes, as well as mid-latitude hazes, luminous spots, and dark, nebulous rings with a purple tinge have been noted. Tectonic features are non-random with provinces that display polar, mid-latitude and equatorial constraints.

Bright emissions (at short UV wavelengths) were noted on the dark side one day, then disappeared and again reappeared, again indicating a time-varying component. The wavelength noted is typical only of a star -- hydrogen fusion -- or a moon, but Mercury has no moon. As a result the author comments that it had "no right to be there. What the original emissions were from, the ones spotted on the approach to the planet, remains a mystery."

Other observations support a Field-dynamical Model for Mercury. The atmosphere is mostly helium, hydrogen and oxygen, but these gases should have escaped along with the solar wind, indicating a local source. Planetary hydrogen fusion and its by-products are an ideal source for replenishing and neutralizing these atmospheric components, while Field dynamics prevent their depletion by deflecting the solar wind. Inert gases, such as neon and argon, are absent, but should be abundant. Some "unknown" energetic process is needed to eject the gas atoms into interplanetary space. The acceleration mechanisms of the Field-dynamical Model are the energetic processes.

Mercury is one tenth as massive as the Earth or Venus, but is has an exceptionally high density. "The observed density of Mercury is confirmed to be too high to be explainable by straightforward condensation and accretion models. Some additional important mechanism is required." This observation departs from the traditional scenario of the condensing protoplanetary nebula (condensation) and an era of bombardment by meteors or planetesimals (accretion). This is strong evidence that our present planetary models are inadequate.

There is much more about Mercury that is discussed in the book that supports this model. The same is true of the other planets, such as Venus.



News Releases About Mercury



  • Mercury is Able to Fend Off the Solar Wind. This is a big surprise, since it was believed that it did not have a strong enough magnetic field. The theory was that Mercury is too close to the Sun to have a core. Yet, when the Field- dynamical Model is considered there is no surprise, as the core is not a dynamo, as is expected from conventional theory. See the Redorbit.com article and the NASA news release.

    Want to know more about this subject? Click here. Also see Related News Stories at the bottom of this page.


    Venus

    Venus is nearer to the Sun than is the Earth, and it was believed that Venus would have a much stronger magnetic field than the Earth. That is, pressure and temperature conditions are believed to have generated a liquid core, and this depends on the size and composition of the planet. Since Venus is the approximate size of the Earth it should have a strong magnetic field, yet it does not. The magnetic field was observed to be near zero strength for a long period of time. However, at times a strong magnetic field was observed. The Venusian magnetic field is time-varying, as could be predicted if it were a time-varying particle accelerator, such as that of the Field. There is little evidence for a vertical or north-south component, because the magnetic field is only horizontal, and varies from orbit to orbit. Admittedly, scientists again say that these observations have nothing to do with our understanding of internal dynamos. Furthermore, large-scale variations in the magnetic field take place in response to the solar wind, indicating a solar linkage.

    In spite of its lack of a strong internal magnetic field, Venus has auroras. The presence of auroras was completely unexpected without a strong magnetic field. An oxygen nightglow at times of solar flares was also completely unexpected. A scientist comments on this enigma: "All the known mechanisms [are] far too weak." In spite of it all, Venus is like the Earth, "In many ways these wave and field measurements resemble those obtained at Earth above the auroral oval, within the polar cusp and at the boundary of the plasma sheet." Auroras occurring with such a weak non-dipole magnetic field defy present theories of planetary physics, but support a Field-dynamical Model.

    A number of unexpected, and hence, unexplained phenomena were observed at the poles. For one, the polar regions are actually hotter than the equator (see Plate 2). A scientist makes note of this enigma: "This is an unexpected direction of variation, since normally the equatorial regions would be expected to be warmer because of the greater solar heating there. The reasons for this observed behavior are not yet clear."

    The reason for this observation is that hydrogen fusion is taking place in the Venusian interior and heated ions are being accelerated out of and into the poles. Another indication of this internal, dynamic energy source is that Venus radiates 15% more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. The planet is entirely cloud covered except for the poles, undoubtedly the clearing at the poles is due to particle flow. Surrounding the poles is the "polar collar cloud," supporting this interpretation (see Plate 3).

    Other aspects of the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere show the latitude constraints of the Field-dynamical Model. A ring or particle density is noted along the equator. There is strong subsidence at the poles, and cold bands surround hot spots, as could be expected of particle flow. In fact, there are what has be called holes in the ionosphere at mid-latitudes with heating, and the enhancement of hydrogen ions inside the holes. Plasma depletions fluctuate with electric fields and the upward flow of ions. Gravity or planetary waves and heat waves emanate from mid-latitudes as well, and both are synchronously coupled, indicating a common cause. Also jets, particle flow and wind shear take place along mid-latitudes.

    The observations indicate that there are sources of particle acceleration beyond what is expected of the present model, and reveal what is expected of the Field-dynamical Model.

    Typically it is believed that the solar wind causes the acceleration (magnetohydrodynamic processes), but observations indicate that "the differences imply that something else is occurring at Venus in addition." Protons and oxygen (O+) ions appear to have the same speed at some times and different at others. Again observations depart from the traditional: "Our observations provide evidence that the process is taking place, but provide few details of how." As could be predicted by the Field-dynamical Model, strong and large-scale magnetic fields are noted during periods of high solar wind pressure, there are large day-to-day variations of neutral hydrogen, and hot, accelerated hydrogen is greatest at the poles.

    The ionosphere can reach several thousand kilometers to scarcely any ions above 200 kilometers (125 miles) 24 hours later. Again this is evidence of an ion-generating source and accelerators that are time-varying. The large-scale magnetic fields observed in the ionosphere, when the solar wind pressure is high, persist longer than expected from a weak non-dipole magnetic field.

    At certain wavelengths (infrared) the darkside shows patchy bright and dark cloud patterns about temperate regions that cannot be understood by present models either. Two probes showed an unexpected glow that increased near the surface possibly akin to the glow or lighted displays noted in the Field areas on Earth, such as Saint Elmo's fire in the North Atlantic Field (only thermoluminescent). Infrared and ultraviolet wave-length analyzers also disclosed unexplained voltage changes (gradient drops). Similar voltage gradients are utilized in physics to accelerate particles. All of these observations would have been explained and even expected if the Field- dynamical Model was known.

    Lightning on Venus also gave us a few surprises, and confirms this Field-Dynamical Model. Strong and impulsive (time-varying) low-frequency noise bursts were noted when the local magnetic field was strong and steady. Lightning clustered near Beta and Atla on the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra, which is a land form with volcanic peaks at about the 30o South Latitude. The surprise was that the lightning came up from the planet, and it is not volcanically triggered. Lightning on Earth takes place along with precipitation, but Venus displayed no precipitation. Furthermore, bursts of radio noise, typical of particles flowing along a magnetic field, were noted, but below the cloud level. A region at the 30o North Latitude, with volcanic peaks, is another source of lightning discharges. Lightning is observed on both the day and night sides with very low-frequency waves (whistlers) detected deep in the ionosphere.

    Another indication of time-varying accelerators involves observations of changes in carbon dioxide. Strengths of carbon dioxide vary in a four-day cycle, which is not exactly periodic, but is built-up on successive cycles and then "collapses." In order to produce this effect the cloud-deck must move up and down as much as one kilometer (0.62 miles) simultaneously over the entire planet! This requires a high input of mechanical energy that is extremely difficult to account for in a slowly rotating planet. One author discusses this in an article titled, "Venus Breathes in Steady Fashion": "Therefore the cycle variations point to some unexplained deep-seated property of the atmospheric dynamics."

    More evidence comes in observations of Venus' superrotating atmosphere. Winds at high altitude sweep around the planet in only four days, while the rotation of Venus takes 243 days. What makes it even more impossible to reconcile with current planetary models is that the clouds rotate in the opposite direction of the planet (i.e., retrograde motion). This superrotation consists of maximums of hydrogen and helium, and (ultraviolet) airglow after midnight, as well as a daily temperature variations. As discussed in Tome One, the mid-latitude Fields become active away from the Sun, accelerating the by-products of hydrogen fusion -- protons, hydrogen and helium nuclei and atoms -- causing temperature changes.

    A "Y"on its side and other shapes appear as dark features (particularly in UV photos) that are centered along the equator. The "Y" feature persists for weeks reappearing in four-day intervals, and persists at the same longitude for at least decades. These features, again, show the predicted mid-latitude restrictions: "the large scale markings ([about] 1,000 km. or 600 mi.) situated between the 45o latitudes have lifetimes greater than 4 [days] and move with an apparent angular motion at the equator." (see Plate 5).

    Temperature and pressure variations also disclose the importance of latitude in accordance with the Field-dynamical Model. Not only are the poles hot, but the deep atmosphere is also cooler near the equator than at 30o latitudes below 40 kilometers (25 miles). One probe's data "show the equatorial region to be (surprisingly) cooler than mid-latitudes below the clouds." This was unexpected and is not understood, because more sunlight strikes the equatorial region. Meanwhile, mid-latitude fields ionizing the atmosphere, producing a partial vacuum, would cause equatorial air to flow away from the equator and into the mid-latitude Fields (damming), producing these observations.

    Likewise, at the poles the coldest and hottest temperatures exist side by side, the hottest over the pole, and the coldest around the pole along the polar collar. Atmospheric pressure is highest at about the 30o latitudes, with high values at the equator, and near the pole, at about the 60o latitude. The lowest pressure is directly over the pole. Furthermore, the temperature and pressure variations cannot be explained by the rotation of Venus (i.e., cyclostrophic balance). Yet, particle flow can explain all of these observations with high pressure occurring in those regions that the atmosphere flows into when balancing the partial vacuum that was created by the ionization of the atmosphere.

    Other features are evident, and discussed in the book. One unexpected phenomena for present models are the tectonics features. The Venus lithosphere (rock surface) is too thin and hot to allow deformation, but there is tectonic features. There are also something like the transform faults (nearly right angle fractures) and rift valleys, as appear on Earth. A canyon along the equator is much larger than the Grand Canyon. Notwithstanding, Venus' surface should be fairly smooth due to the high temperatures and thin crust.

    Want to know more about this subject? Click here. And see the news stories below.


    News Releases About Venus




  • Venus has a Polar Vortex and the Atmosphere in the Polar Region is 60% Less than was Hypothesized. Both the polar vortex and the less dense atmosphere can easily be explained by particle flow accelerated in a vortex motion -- the Field of the Field-dynamical Model atthe poles. See the Physorg.com news release.


  • A "Mysterious Spot" was Observed on Venus. The spot appeared along the 45o latitude, which can be expected of particle flow from mid-latitude fields of the Field-dynamical Venus Model, which would also create atmospheric turbulence. The scientists examining the phenomenon suggest solar particles and atmospheric turbulence as a possiblity, but they do not know for sure. See the New Scientist article and the Physorg.com article.


  • Another Similarity Exists Between Venus and Earth, Their Lightning Phenomena Reveal the Same Mechanism. This is to be expected of the Field-dynamic Model being in Operation on Both Planets. Otherwise, one would tend to believe that their lightning would be very different, as different as their atmospheric composition. See the Sciencedaily.com article.

  • Venus Express Reveals More Detail About Venus' Turbulent Atmosphere. The atmosphere of Venus has laways been a mystery, rotating in only four Earth days in the opposite direction of the planets rotation, which takes 243 Earth days. The source of this super-rotation has been a puzzle to scientists. This is because they do not know of the Field-dynamical Model of Venus, where particle flow is the source of this supper-rotation. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Zeenews.com article. These clouds can also be seen in the ultra-violet abd infra-red wavelenghts, as described in a Physorg.com article. [source: Titov, D.V., et al (2008) Atmospheric structure and dynamics as the cause of ultraviolet markings in the clouds of Venus. Nature: 620-623].

  • First Seen Around the North Pole, Venus Now also Shows a Double Vortex Around its South Pole -- Scientists Consider it a Mystery. This structure is the result of two separate flows of particles, probably one positively charged and the other negatively charged. This is much like the separate streams of particles in the aurora. The scenario is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model of Venus where there are polar fields that accelerate ionizing radiation in avortex motion. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness where photos of the polar regions also show luminous and thermal phenomena. See the Physorg.com artiocle and the Space.com article.

  • First Seen Around the North Pole, Venus Now also Shows a Double Vortex Around its South Pole -- Scientists Consider it a Mystery. This structure is the result of two separate flows of particles, probably one positively charged and the other negatively charged. This is much like the separate streams of particles in the aurora. The scenario is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model of Venus where there are polar fields that accelerate ionizing radiation in a vortex motion. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness where photos of the polar regions also show luminous and thermal phenomena. See the Physorg.com artiocle and the Space.com article.

  • Saturn has a Huge Polar Vortex (i.e., Field) that is Similar to Earth's Hurricanes. Saturn's south polar vortex shares some properties with hurricanes that include cyclonic circulation, warm central region (the eye) surrounded by a ring of high clouds (the eye wall), and convective clouds outside the eye. Yet, in contrast to Earth, there are a polar location and the absence of an ocean. It also shares properties with the polar vortices on Venus, including polar location, cyclonic circulation, warm center, and long lifetime, though the Venus vortices have cold collars (i.e., a ring around the vortex) and are not associated with convective clouds. [source: Dyudina, U.A., et al. (2008) Dynamics of Saturn's South Polar Vortex. Science Vol. 319: 1801].

  • More Similarity -- This Time it is Between Mars and Venus. Both have beams of electrically charged particles flowing out of their atmospheres as they are accelerated away by interactions with the solar wind. This is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model, which accelerates the by-products of fusion away from the planet. See the Physorg.com article.

  • More Similarities -- Venus has Polar Vortexes, Like Jupiter, Saturn and Other Planets. The vortex has a central region that is brighter than surrounding areas and is structured like a hurricane, as could be expected with the Field-dynamical Model of Venus. See the ESA news release.

  • New Observations Show that Venus has "Mysterious" Hazes, Brightenings and Dark Markings. These phenomena are the result of particle flow, involving the Field-dynamical Model of Venus, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two (section 1.2). See the Space.com article.

  • Venus Has a "Dynamic" Atmosphere as Could Be Expected from the Field-dynamical Model. Features change dramatically in a few days. Hazes, dark bands, polar features, and so on are seen as "an internal dynamical process in the planetís atmosphere", which are created by particle acceleration processes. See the Redorbit.com article.

  • Venus' acidic clouds could sustain life. Lightning and solar radiation should be producing large amounts of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. However, they are scare, and therefore, suggest that some living thing is removing it. Hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide were also found, but these two gases react with each other and so they are never normally found together. This too suggests that something is producing them. See the full NewScientist.com story.


    Mars

    Like most of the inner or terrestrial planets, Mars displays differences between what was expected of dynamo theory, and what has been observed, when considering its magnetic field. Strong controversial differences exist between the strength of the internal (intrinsic) magnetic field and its ability to deflect the solar wind above the ionosphere. The evidence demands a stronger magnetic field (mass flux is two orders greater). Yet, all the observations indicate that Mars does not have a magnetic field, though it may have had one in its early history, or it is time-varying, and has not yet been observed.

    The magnetosphere away from the Sun displays a flow with velocities much larger than the planet's escape velocity. This indicates some type of acceleration mechanism exists that is not explained by present physical theory. Unexpectedly, Mars also has an aurora (UV dayglow and CO) indicative of magnetic and/or electric lines of force.

    It becomes immediately apparent that something unique is affecting the polar regions of Mars when it is noted that circular basins exist at each pole. Each basin contains stacked plate units that resemble a pinwheel (see Plate 6). It also resembles the patterns noted on the polar regions of the Sun, comets, galaxies and other celestial objects, as will be discussed. Polar stress patterns cannot be explained by simple convection models, but require episodes of flow descending towards the interior near the poles. This is an accurate way of describing a time-varying particle accelerator that accelerates particles towards the interior operating since the planet's formation. The polar basins cannot be explained, as once attempted, by two impacts of the same energy striking each pole.

    Other polar features are noted that could be expected of the Field-dynamical Model. There are spiral clouds with a narrow jet at the North Pole, and clouds reach 50 kilometers (86 miles), when present theory states that they should be only 6-7 kilometers (10.7-11.3 miles). These spiraling clouds are very similar to cyclones on Earth. The North Pole is a very active weather center.

    Also supportive of the new model is mid-latitude phenomena. The mid-latitudes have very active weather phenomena that shows a solar linkage. Parallel clouds, dust storms, darkening waves, and lee, heating and gravity waves all show relationships with mid-latitudes. Fluctuations in temperature and pressure gradients are especially noted for the mid-latitudes. There have also been bright and dark spots observed along these latitudes.

    Other features indicate a very dynamic planet. Evidence of massive floods is plentiful on Mars. Like Venus, Mars has a canyon that dwarfs our Grand Canyon. Tectonic features are said to be due to the rotation of features between the 40o latitudes, again showing mid-latitude constraints. As occurs with the other planets, much of the phenomena fluctuates with solar activity, and there is strong evidence of a solar linkage.

    Recently, the question about whether Mars had, and still has, water has been answered. As with so many other aspects of the planets, there are clear similiaities, "The salts found mimic the salts in Earth's ocean fairly closely. There was apparently a uniformity between the planets." This is the conclusion after studying a meteorite from Mars. There are also many features on Mars that bare the evidence of the flow of water on the Martian surface. These recent findings confirm earlier observations that Mars had, and still has, some water.


    Want to know more about this subject? Click here. And see the news stories below.


    News Releases About Mars




  • Mars has an Aurora that is Not Visible to the Naked Eye, and the Source that Accelerates the High-Energy Solar Particles is Unknown in the Conventional Sense (i.e., there is no strong magnetic field). With the Field-dynamical Model of Mars this is no mystery and there is a Mars-solar linkage. See the Livescience.com article.


  • Titan, Saturn's Moon, Has Winds that Blow West to East in Contrast to What is Expected. Titan global circulation modelers expected Titan's atmosphere to follow a pattern like that on other terrestrial planetss that rotate in the same direction, including Earth. On these bodies, the surface transfers its angular momentum to the near-surface atmosphere, pulling the atmosphere around after it. The equator has the most angular momentum, because it's the farthest away from the rotation axis. As a result, the atmosphere near the equator's surface should rotate no faster-- and probably even slower--than the surface itself, producing gentle westward winds. The near-surface winds would move eastward only if they could draw extra angular momentum from somewhere else. According to atmospheric modelers this is an unlikely scenario. However, Venus also has this same type of atmospheric circulation in a superrotation of its atmosphere. Moreover, this conclusion is based on sand dunes that all occur around the 30o latitudes, as would be expected of the Field-dynamical Model. [source: Chelsea Wald (2009) PLANETARY SCIENCE: In Dune Map, Titan's Winds Seem to Blow Backward. Science 323: 1418].


  • More Similarity -- This Time it is Between Mars and Venus. Both have beams of electrically charged particles flowing out of their atmospheres as they are accelerated away by interactions with the solar wind. This is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model, which accelerates the by-products of fusion away from the planet. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Despite their Differences in the Chemical Compositions and Densities of the Earthís and Marsí Atmospheres, both Planetsí Atmospheres React Similarly to Varying Levels of Solar Activity, Impacting them during the Sunís 25-Day Rotation. This is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Models of both Earth and Mars, as they both have similar linkages with their magnetic fields and the Sun's Interplanetary Magnetic Field. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, and to some extent in Similariities of the Planets. See the Physorg.com article. Also see the next entry.

  • The Water on Mars Might Come from Snow. Due to seasonal, and long-term orbital and polar wobble effects, the water erosion features on Mars appears to have come from snow. No how the discussions reveal that the snow reaches mid-latitudes -- an effect of the Field-dynamical Model of Mars. See the NewScientist.com, the USAToday.com, and the NASA stories.

  • Maps of Mars Show More Similarities Between Mars and Earth -- This Time it is Plate Tectonics. See the space.com article.

  • Despite their Differences in the Chemical Compositions and Densities of the Earthís and Marsí Atmospheres, both Planetsí Atmospheres React Similarly to Varying Levels of Solar Activity, Impacting them during the Sunís 25-Day Rotation. This is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Models of both Earth and Mars, as they both have similar linkages with their magnetic fields and the Sun's Interplanetary Magnetic Field. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, and to some extent in Similariities of the Planets. See the Physorg.com article. Also see the next entry.

  • Evidence that Mars Once had Water is Now Abundant. See the Spacedaily.com article, and the Space.com story.

  • Mars has Aurora, Though Scientists Did Not Expect It. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two it is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model that all planets have aurora, and Mars does. This adds to the similarities of the planets (see the web page The Similarities of the Planets). See the physorg.com article and the Universetoday.com article

  • A frozen sea has been found along Mars' equator and this increases the chances for life on Mars. See the NewScientist.com article.

  • Positive proof that water was once on Mars is presented by scientists See the innovations-report.com article

  • A Salty Sea Covered Parts of Mars, and is a Good Spot to Look for Life. Evidence now shows that parts of Mars were covered with water, and like may be beneath the soil in these areas. See the Sapce.com news release.

  • Methane Found on Mars May Indicate Life. See the RedNova Story.

  • More Evidence Indicates Martian Meteorite, Discovered in 1996, Does Have Signs of Life. See the Universe Today Story.

  • Carbonates -- a Sign of Water's Presence -- is Found on Mars. See the Physicsweb Story.

  • More Evidence of Water on Mars -- a Possible Place for Life. Last year NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft observed mysterious layered areas on Mars. The layers appear to be sedimentary deposits that formed underwater and they could be the best places to look for Martian fossils. Many features on Mars, from channels and erosion features to lake beds, display what would be expected of water. See the full story in a news release from NASA.

  • Rusty Soil may be Where the Martian Water Went. On the Red Planet, rusty-red Mars, a curious deposit of gray-colored hematite (something like common household rust) could unravel the mystery of where Martian water went. See the full story in a news release from NASA.

  • More Evidence of the Possibility of Life on Mars. Magnetic crystals have turned up in a meteorite from Mars. Meanwhile, the single-file crystals should have collapsed long ago into a magnetized clump, but ancient Martian microbes may have kept them in line. See the full story in a news release from NASA.

  • The Water on Mars Might Come from Snow. Due to seasonal, and long-term orbital and polar wobble effects, the water erosion features on Mars appears to have come from snow. No how the discussions reveal that the snow reaches mid-latitudes -- an effect of the Field-dynamical Model of Mars. See the NewScientist.com, the USAToday.com, and the NASA stories.

  • More on Mars Water. NASA shows how water flowed on in its past. See the Spacedaily.com story. If the water ice on Mars where to melt, it would cover the planet in an akle high sea. See the BBC story. See also the Los Alamos National Laboratory maps of water.

  • Another Look at the Biological Potential of Mars. Life could use some chemical reactions on the Red Planet to sustain their life. See the Space.com story.

  • More Similarities between Mars and the Earth. Both Mars and the Earth have polygonal patterns on their surfaces. See the Space.com story.

  • More on Mars Water. NASA shows how water flowed on in its past. See the Spacedaily.com story. If the water ice on Mars where to melt, it would cover the planet in an akle high sea. See the BBC story. See also the Los Alamos National Laboratory maps of water.

  • Mars Meteorite Reveals Water was Present on the Planet, at Least at One Time. The evidence suggests that magma rocks beneath the surface of the Red Planet once were rich in water. See the Discovery.com news story.

  • Mars has more water than thought, and the possibility of life there is all the more likely. Heat up a quantity of dirt from some parts of Mars and get half of that in liquid water! Analyzing data from NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft revealed a surprising amounts of underground water-ice on the Red Planet, enough to fill Lake Michigan twice over. See the full NASA story

  • More evidence of water on Mars -- a possible place for life. Last year NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft observed mysterious layered areas on Mars. The layers appear to be sedimentary deposits that formed underwater and they could be the best places to look for Martian fossils. Many features on Mars, from channels and erosion features to lake beds, display what would be expected of water. See the full story in a news release from NASA.

  • Rusty soil may be where the Martian water went. On the Red Planet, rusty-red Mars, a curious deposit of gray-colored hematite (something like common household rust) could unravel the mystery of where Martian water went. See the full story in a news release from NASA.

  • More evidence of the possibility of life on Mars. Magnetic crystals have turned up in a meteorite from Mars. Meanwhile, the single-file crystals should have collapsed long ago into a magnetized clump, but ancient Martian microbes may have kept them in line. See the full story in a news release from NASA.

  • Another look at the biological potential of Mars. Life could use some chemical reactions on the Red Planet to sustain their life. See the Space.com story.

  • More similarities between Mars and the Earth. Both Mars and the Earth have polygonal patterns on their surfaces. See the Space.com story.

  • More evidence of water on Mars is seen in new high-resolution pictures. See the pictures and the story in the Space.com news release.

  • Vast Amount of Water Found on Mars. A vast reservior of water-ice has been obsvered about a meter (3 ft.) below the surface, south of the sixty degree latitude. If melted it would create a planet-wide ocean about 500 meters (1,640 ft.) deep. See the BBC story.


    Jupiter

    Jupiter's magnetic field is about four times stronger than that of the Earth's. As a result, the magnetosphere extends beyond its moons to about one hundred times Jupiter's radius. Radio bursts, caused by particle flow along the magnetic lines of force, are almost entirely dependent on the phase of Io, Jupiter's largest moon. There is also a correlation between solar wind boundaries and (decimeter) radio emission. Particle flow along the field system can be witnessed in that compression of the magnetosphere coincides with the activation of the equatorial current. These observations alone indicate that a Field-dynamical Model also operates on Jupiter.

    Jupiter's aurora is the largest ever viewed by humankind, approximately 29,000 kilometers (18,000 miles) long at the North Pole (as observed 5 March 1979). It is much stronger than expected by present models, and due to electrostatic forces it is attended by lightning. Another contradiction to the present model is that those particles which precipitate along field lines in one hemisphere are inhibited from reaching the other hemisphere. Yet, this phenomena can be understood as particle acceleration along field lines and into the Jovian interior. Likewise, the observation of X-rays, typical of particle acceleration, were noted at both poles. Auroras display greater acceleration at about the 180o longitude, which is unexplained by present theory, but is associated with a magnetic anomaly. The moons, Io and Europa, are known to produce auroras by triggering particle flow. Jovian auroras are not rare and have been observed repeatedly.

    The bright polar regions of Jupiter are clear of atmospheric gases evidently due to particle flow. Typical of the Field-dynamical Model, hydrogen (H and H2) enhancements at the poles are time-varying. There is also a polar wind of hydrogen, and enhanced methane emission bands surround the poles at about the 60o latitudes. An unusually large abundance of hydrogen is associated with the auroras, but it cannot be explained by present-day models of Jupiter, nor by solar wind sources.

    Latitude restrictions of various phenomena are conspicuous in observations of the atmosphere, and those clouds that make up the bands and spots of vivid color. For one, the colors in the banded structures are parallel to the equator. Blue light was noted at latitudes below 40o, and blue and red bands increase above the 40o North and 48o South Latitudes. The bands of color display distinct changes at about the 30o latitudes. Sharp boundaries exist in the cloud systems, which have time-varying characteristics (see Plate 9).

    Other observations display the expected constraints of the Field-dynamical Model. Solar heating is mostly along the equator, but there are warm features at the 35o latitudes, and there is more heat above the 45o latitudes. Scientist note that an "unknown mechanism" is required to explain the observations. Also indicative of an internal energy source is the fact that sixteen times more energetic oxygen and sulfur ions flow out into the magnetosphere. A number of other phenomena confirm that this new model of Jupiter is a reality.

    A number of other features fail to be explained by the present models of Jupiter. Pioneer 10 observed changes in the atmosphere that were much too great to be resolved by present theory. The power for the aurora, heating of the atmosphere, and a sink for major ions at high latitudes are also unexplained. Temperature variations in certain features, such as the major white ovals and the Great Red Spot, are colder in some regions closer to Jupiter's surface (upper troposphere and tropopause), and relatively warm in another region above this (upper stratosphere). "At the present time, no satisfactory explanation for this behavior appears to exist." This enigmatic nature of its workings is because the Field-dynamical Model is not being considered, and are due to particle flow.

    Further support for the new model are the wind peaks that occur at the 20o to 30o latitudes, and less so at 10o latitudes. Likewise, flare-like discharges and lightning take place, and there is a high concentration of hydrogen (lyman-alpha) in low latitudes of the upper atmosphere. Possibly the greatest indication of a hydrogen fusion core is the energy it receives from the Sun is only a small portion of what is radiated by Jupiter. Likewise, Jupiter has often been referred to as the "sun that never made it."

    Like the other planets, Jupiter has many features that fluctuate with solar activity. One such feature is the Great Red Spot, which has been observed ever since we trained our telescopes on it more than three centuries ago. Such a long-lived feature requires a mechanism to prevent wind shear, which should have destroyed this feature long ago. Can you imagine a hurricane on Earth staying in the same place for even a few hours? Here, it has remained in the same location for more than three centuries. Obviously, there is more to Jupiter than the present model allows. There are many more observations presented in the book that confirm that the Field-dynamical Model is at work.

    Want to know more about this subject? Click here. And see the news stories below.


    News Releases About Jupiter




  • A Bright Spot Appeared on Jupiter that has Been Assumed to be an Impact -- But is it? The mystery is that there is no debris that an impact would leave behind. So NASA asks "was it something else?" When looking at the image it is clear that this phenomenon took place in the southern mid-latitude where fields that release ionizing radiation would produce the same phenomenon -- lights, but not debris. This is something that could be predicted of a Field-dynamical model of Jupiter as was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the NASA news release.


  • Another Suprise at Saturn -- It's Winds Move Both East and West. This results from jets in the atmosphere that alternate eastward and westward, but scientists don't know why. It is particle flow from a Field-dynamical Saturn Model. The same phemomenon occurs on Jupiter. See the Softpedia.com news article.

  • Another Similarity -- Jupiter and Saturn have Very Similar Aurora. [source: Stallard, T, et al. (2008) Jovian-like aurorae on Saturn. Nature 453, 1083-1085].

  • More Simiarities -- Saturn has equatorial oscillations like those found on Earth and Jupiter, as well as a mid-latitude subsidence (i.e., mid-latitude Fields of the Field-dynamical Model) that may be associated with the equatorial motion (i.e., the ring current of the model). The extent of Saturn's latitudinal oscillation shows that it follows the same basic physics as do those on Earth and Jupiter. [source: Fouchet, T., et al (2008) An equatorial oscillation in Saturn's middle atmosphere. Nature 453, 200-202]. Also, fifteen-year oscillations in Saturn's equatorial stratosphere reveal a striking resemblance to the shorter-term oscillations seen on Earth and Jupiter ó "akin to notes played on a cello, a violin and a viola." [source: Dowling, T.E. (2008) Planetary science: Music of the stratospheres. Nature 453, 163-164].

  • Jupiter has Similar Auroras to those of Earth, but they are Larger than Planet Earth itself. See the NASA News release.

  • Listen to the Sounds of Jupiter Coming from the Magnetic Poles. These radio noises sound like animals on Earth. Listen to the sounds with links provided in a NASA story.

  • Saturn's F-Ring is a Spiral and Cannot Be Explained by Sheparding. The favorite theory for the formation of planetary rings is sheparding, which is a gravitaional drag created by a moon. Yet, there is no moon to explain the F-ring, especially its spiral structure. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two planetary rings are a result of the Field-dynamical Model of planets where the Fields turn back towards the planet creating an electromagnetic ring-like structure that guides charged particles along the equatorial region (and in some cases elsewhere). See the Newscientistspace.com artilce, and Discovery.com article, which also discusses that atmosphere's dynamics, expected of the Field-dynamical Model.

  • True to the Field-dynamical Model of Jupiter, its Winds are the Result of Forces in the Deep Interior. The winds have basically remained the same over the 300 years that they have been obversed. See the Spacedaily.com article.

  • Just like the Earth-Moon system, Jupiter's moon, Io, triggers aurora. Jupiter is also a field-dynamical model planet. See the Universetoday.com artilce

  • Another Similarity Between the Planets -- This Time Its Jupiter's Cloud Bands are Like Earth's Ocean Currents. See the Universe Today story.

  • An Unknown Dark Spot Shows Up Twice on Jupiter. The dark spot is very likely an emission of neutrons, which appear dark as they absorb light. The neutrons are a by-product of hydrogen fusion involving the Field-dynamical Model of Jupiter presented in The Vital Vastness. The emission is from a mid-latitude field with a 15-degree spread from the 30- to 40-degree latitudes. See the Space.com Story.

  • The Great Dark Spot of Jupiter Surprises Astronomers -- NASA sees Jupiter's Polar Field, but Doesn't Know What It Is. On Jupiter's North Pole there is a Great Dark Spot twice the size of Earth. It is within Jupiter's auroral zone and is time-varying (ephemeral) just as described in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and expected of the Field-dynamical Model. See the NASA news release, which includes a movie of the Great Dark Spot, as well as other media.

  • Chandra X-ray Observatory sees Jupiter's polar Field effects. What has been called a mysterious hot spot has been discovered near Jupiter's North Pole -- a pulsating center of X-rays. This is actually the polar field of the Field-dynamical Model of Jupiter, which is a particle accelerator that is time-varying. Hence, X-rays, the signature of acceleration processes, and "pulsating", the time-varying effects, are seen, but since this model is unknown to them, they are described as mysterious. NASA sees the Polar Field of Jupiter, but doesn't know what it is. See NASA story. Be sure to see the movie, as well. This NASA news release shows an animation of the X-rays in the polar region. See also the full news release from Cosmiverse, see the full NASA story, or the abstract from the journal Nature (vol. 415, no. 6875).

  • "Mysterious spot" is noted at Jupiters pole. Jupiter revealed what scientist are calling a mysterious spot at Jupiter's pole, in its auroral oval. However, this is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model of Jupiter, but scientist do not yet know about the model. See the Space.com story, and also use the link to see the animation of the hole, or use this this link to view it -- in Windows Media Player.


    Saturn

    Saturn has radio signals similar to those of Jupiter along with a magnetosphere and radiation belts. The leading edge of the magnetosphere (bowshock) and proton levels are responsive to the solar wind. Electrons and protons are accelerated within the magnetosphere.

    As with the Moon and FEM, radiation is depleted by the moons due to particle flow along field lines (i.e., plasma torus, bow shock, electrostatic repulsion, etc.). Radio discharges are impulsive, as could be expected of a time-varying particle accelerator. Electrons peak at 90o with respect to the local dipole magnetic field. The "most remarkable and enigmatic aspect" is the high agreement (axisymmetry) of the magnetic field and the rotation axis, which may be exactly the same. Like so many other features of the other planets, this close conformity is not understood within the framework of dynamo theory. Indicative of an internal energy source, Saturn radiates 2.4 times the energy it receives from the Sun. These facts alone suggest that the Field-dynamical Model operates on Saturn, but there is more.

    Typical phenomena of the Field-dynamical Model take place at the polar regions of Saturn. Aurora occur at approximately the 80o latitudes around the poles, and they also involve a polar wind. Typical of particle accelerators, X-rays are noted during auroras. Helium, a product of hydrogen fusion, is emitted at the poles, and hydrogen emissions fluctuate with solar activity. Polar brightening is evidently the result of particle flow, and polar phenomena are time-varying.

    Along the equator Saturn has rings and what is called the Saturn Electrostatic Discharge or SED. A ring current, bursts of hydrogen (lyman-alpha), and a hydrogen glow near the rings, especially the B-ring, are observed. Also, heavy ions, electrons, and the rings are strong sources of radio emission, indicative of particle flow along magnetic field lines. Likewise, SED has been associated with low-energy charged particle fluxes. SED revolves or rotates like a search light beacon, and is confined to a narrow band along the equator (within 5 minutes). The spokes of the B-ring, polar aurora, brightening and SED are all time-varying. All, except the SED, are associated with a possible magnetic anomaly. More about the rings and SED will be discussed in the section on planetary rings.

    Other "mysteries" only serve to confirm the Field-dynamical Model. Saturn's brightness fluctuates with solar activity, though irregularly (i.e., time-varying). The power for the aurora, heating of the atmosphere, and electron concentration in the ionosphere are without explanation according to present hypotheses. Likewise, the excess of hydrogen is not explained. Indicative of an internal heat source is the fact that Saturn radiates 2.4 times more heat than it absorbs from the Sun. Yet, all of these observations can be predicted from an understanding of the new model.

    Again, there is much more presented in the book that confirms that this model is at work.


    News Releases About Saturn




  • Observations Link Saturn's Radio Emissions and Aurora -- Part of the Evidence for a Solar Linkage and a Field-dynamical Model. See the Physorg.com article.


  • Saturn's Red Spot has been Seen Glowing. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two as the result of particle flow in the region of the Red Spot and a Field-dynamical Model of Saturn. See the Physorg.com news release. Thermal images reveal the effects of this flow, as shown in a another Physorg.com news release.


  • Saturn has a Colassal Ring Larger than Anything in Our Solar System and Few Other Unexpected Charateristics. The moon, Phoebe, is associated with a ring that rotates backwards and is tilted by 27o to the equator of Saturn -- it is the mid-latitude Fields that seem to control this. [sources: Tiscareno, M.S., Hedman, M.M., Saturn's Colassal Ring. Nature 461:1064-5 (2009) and Verbiscer, A.J., et al. Saturn's Largest Ring. Nature 461:1098-1100 (2009)]. Moreover, many of the Saturn's ring features cannot be reconciled with gravitational theories.


  • Saturn's Lightning Breaks a Solar System Record by Lasting Longer than on any Other Planet. As could be expected of the Field-dynamical model the lightning continously appears at the 35o South Latitude (i.e., a mid-latitude Field). See the Nationalgeographic.com article.


  • Space Physicists indicate that Saturn's Rings are Still a Mystery. The problem is that scientists are trying to explain the features as the result of gravitational forces, but they are instead electromagnetically controlled by a Field-dynamical Model of Saturn. This is especially apparent in the unusual features, such as gaps, braids, spokes, old and new material, and so forth. See the MSNBC.com article.


  • Another Suprise at Saturn -- It's Winds Move Both East and West. This results from jets in the atmosphere that alternate eastward and westward, but scientists don't know why. It is particle flow from a Field-dynamical Saturn Model. The same phemomenon occurs on Jupiter. See the Softpedia.com news article.

  • Saturn has What has been Called a "Mysterious New Aurora" that Covers the Entire Pole. Most auroras do not cover the poles, but instead circle the pole along the magnetic lines of force generated by the planet's magnetic field. A notable exception is the occasional Theta-arc configuration of the Earth's aurora, which involves a stream to form through the center, but not the entire pole is covered. This puts into question how the auroras are formed. Meanwhile, this fits well with a time-varying particle accelerator of the poles of the Field-dynamical Saturn Model. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Saturn's Ring Features are Often Not Associated with a Moon or Moonlet, and Show the Presence of Gaps in High-Energy Electron Flow. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, many, or even most, ring features are controlled by particle flow along the field lines of the Field-dynamical Model, which has a ring feature created by the interaction of the Fields along the equator -- an electrostatic levitation of the ring particles takes place. See the Redorbit.com article.

  • Another Similarity -- Jupiter and Saturn have Very Similar Aurora. [source: Stallard, T, et al. (2008) Jovian-like aurorae on Saturn. Nature 453, 1083-1085].

  • Saturn Produced a Very Huge Lightning Storm that seems to Have lasted Nearly a Year. No one seems to mention that this is an extremely long duration for a "storm" and how this takes place. With the field-dynamical Model of Saturn, though, this could be expected, as the release of ionizing radiation churns the atmosphere and electrically charges it. See the NewScientist.com article and the Physorg.com article.

  • Saturn has a Huge Polar Vortex (i.e., Field) that is Similar to Earth's Hurricanes. Saturn's south polar vortex shares some properties with hurricanes that include cyclonic circulation, warm central region (the eye) surrounded by a ring of high clouds (the eye wall), and convective clouds outside the eye. Yet, in contrast to Earth, there are a polar location and the absence of an ocean. It also shares properties with the polar vortices on Venus, including polar location, cyclonic circulation, warm center, and long lifetime, though the Venus vortices have cold collars (i.e., a ring around the vortex) and are not associated with convective clouds. [source: Dyudina, U.A., et al. (2008) Dynamics of Saturn's South Polar Vortex. Science Vol. 319: 1801].

  • Saturn's Ring Features are Often Not Associated with a Moon or Moonlet, and Show the Presence of Gaps in High-Energy Electron Flow. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, many, or even most, ring features are controlled by particle flow along the field line of the Field-dynamical Model, which has a ring feature created by the interaction of the Fields along the equator -- an electrostatic levitation of the ring particles takes place. See the Redorbit.com article.

  • Further Attempts to Explain Saturn's Temperature Have Failed. Saturn is hotter than expected and the poles are hotter than low latitudes. These can be explained by a Field-dynamical Model of Saturn, where the extra heat comes from the thermonucelar core. See the arstechnica.com article.

  • Other Similiarities between the Planets -- Uranus' and Saturn's Blue and Red Rings are Similarly Composed and at Similiar Distances from the Planet. Similariiities such as these are more easily understood under the influence of electromagnetic forces, though the main aspect of this sort of research is focused on graviitation, sheparding and impacts. The formation of rings is the result of the fields of the Field-dynamical Model coming into conjunction along the equatorial regions of the planets (most often), as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. [source: de Pater, I, et al. (2006) New Dust Belts of Urnaus: One Ring, Two Ring, Blue Ring, Red Ring. Science 312:92-94].

  • In Contrast to Expectations Saturn's Rotating "Storms" are Powering the Planet's Jet Streams. It was originally thought that the jet streams where creating the storms on Saturn, but it is instead the stroms that power the jet streams. The problem is that this leaves out the source of the energy in the "storms." These "storms" are actually the release of particles by Saturn's mid-latitude Fields of the Field-dynamical Model of Saturn. See the Spaceref.com article.

  • Like Earth, Saturn has a Sunward Electron Flow. This is unexpected in the present understanding of the aurora and the pressure of the solar wind. However, as discussed in The Vital Vastness this is due to the Field-dynamical Model with fields whose helical structure allows for flow towards and away from the planet, as well as a planet-solar linkage. See the Physorg.com article.

  • A Giant Storm -- the Size of the United States -- is Raging on Saturn, and They Don't Know Why. The origin of the storm is due to the release of ionized particles through the Mid-Latitude Fields of the Field-dynamical Model of Saturn, the most active Field of which is responsible for the Red Spot. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Voluime Two. The scientists try to explain the storm as the result of a warm interior, but fail to explain the origin of the heat, its location, nor observe that the interior is indeed warm. See the Universtoday.com article.

  • Saturn's Rings are Much More Orderly Than Present Theories Allow. The problem with the present theory is it is, like so many prespectives, a gravitational theory. In The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two the proposed theory is instead electromagnetic and electrostatic, with the Field-dynamical Model controlling the position and order of the rings, due to a ring-like structure in the model. See the Space.com story.

  • In Contrast to Expectations Saturn's Rotating "Storms" are Powering the Planet's Jet Streams. It was originally thought that the jet streams where creating the storms on Saturn, but it is instead the stroms that power the jet streams. The problem is that this leaves out the source of the energy in the "storms." These "storms" are actually the release of particles by Saturn's mid-latitude Fields of the Field-dynamical Model of Saturn. See the Spaceref.com article.

  • The Polar Hexagon Located at Saturn's North Pole is Considered Bizarre and Totally Unexpected by Scientists. However, this is more readily explained by Field-dynamical Model of Saturn. See the Spacedaily.com and Space.com articles.

  • An Unexpected Cooling Takes Place in Saturn's Upper Atmosphere. The upper atmospheres of the giant gaseous planets have higher temperatures than could be expected from solar heating, indicating interntal heat sources. For example, Saturn's polar and 30 o latitudes are about twice as hot as predicted. This is to be expected by the Field-dynamical Model of Saturn. The authors of the article have this to say, "There is either an unknown -- and large -- source of polar energy, or, more probably, some other process heats low latitudes directly." The expectation that solar energy heats the polar regions and then this is distributed by winds is untenable, as the upper atmosphere undergoes cooling, not heating. The cooling is caused by particle flow creating a partial vacuum. [Smith, C.G.A., et al. (2007) An Unexpected cooling effect in Saturn's upper atmosphere. Nature 445:399-401].

  • Saturn's Ring Spokes Have Been Linked to Lightning-Like Discharges. The theory of ring formation presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two involves electrostatic discharges (lightning-like phenomena) that flow along the contours of the Field-dynamical Model and end up along the ring plane. All celestial objects have a similar structure, including planet rings, the planets around the Sun, galaxies' stars, galactic clusters, galactic superclusters, and probably the large-scale structure of the Universe itself. See the nature.com article, and the earthtimes.org article.

  • A "String of Pearls" is Draped Around Saturn's Northern Hemisphere, and are Claimed to be Evenly Spaced Downdrafts in the Clouds. They may very well be downdrafts, but why? Actually, it is the Fields of Saturn -- in the Field-dynamical Model -- that produce time-varying (evenly spaced) particle acceleration (or "bundles") that interact with the clouds (creating partial vacuum condensing the clouds). This was discussed in the The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the newscientist.com article.

  • Expected of the Field-dynamical Model, Saturn has a Vortex -- Hurricane-Like -- Structure at its South Pole. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, and other planets and celestial objects show similar structure due to particle flow (or plasma flow). See the FoxNews.com story, which includes pictures and int.iol.co.za story for additional information.

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    Uranus

    The magnetic field of Uranus was one of the many surprises of the Voyager mission. Originally it was believed that Uranus had no magnetic field or magnetosphere. Yet, it is very complex, revealing more of the Field-dynamical Model than most other Voyager observations of the other planets. There is a magnetosphere inside a magnetosphere with lines that are known to dive back below the surface before reaching the equator. The magnetosphere displays convection like that of the Earth, while the whole system corotates with the planet. The rotational axis and the magnetic field are "offset" by 55o to 60o. Another way of looking at this phenomena is to interpret this offset as actually the observation of a 30o latitude field, which is being assumed to be a displaced dipole field, because the phenomena observed are typical of a polar region. A dipole is speculated in order to preserve the opinion that magnetic fields are always generated by dynamo processes.

    Meanwhile, the evidence is there for the Field-dynamical Model. Radio emission at the weak "North Pole" is time-varying. It is an impulsive solar-wind driven source with at least six separate components. Auroral zones are much closer to what has been called the "equator" than to the rotational poles. The emissions are like those at Earth, Jupiter and Saturn, and are unexplained (including a dichotomy between narrow band bursty and smooth emissions). Auroras are "self-excited," or better stated, it is driven internally, not solar-wind driven, and disturbs the upper atmosphere. In addition to the aurora, there is also airglow and electroglow in the form of a double helix in the tail of the field. The electroglow has been so-named because it is believed to be due to electrons exciting hydrogen in the upper atmosphere. However, the source of the electrons' energy is not known according to present models. The hydrogen column (Lyman-alpha) is unexpectedly strong and time-varying (by a factor of two in 24 hours), which also indicates a magnetic field. Aurora are observed at 44.2o North Latitude and spread about 15o in diameter typical of the Fields. The level of electrons that feed into such a diameter are insufficient to account for the observed intensity, requiring a dynamic component.

    The energy sources of the atmospheric phenomena also disclose the Field-dynamical Model. The upper atmosphere reaches a temperature (750o K) that causes it to balloon 6,000 kilometers (3,725 miles) above the clouds. About 30% of the heat radiated comes directly from Uranus. Solar input alone cannot account for the high temperature, and therefore, another source is required. The source is the hydrogen fusion core of the Field-dynamical Model.

    Other features reveal what is expected of the Field-dynamical Model. For example, warmer temperatures should be observed at the South Pole, because the Sun directly heats this pole. Notwithstanding, the temperatures are fairly uniform, even for the dark North Pole. The equator is the warmest, and the 30o latitudes have the lowest temperatures. A number of other atmospheric features reveal the new model.

    Two convection cells in the atmosphere are displaced on either side of the 30o latitudes. There is strong mixing of the clouds with the atmosphere, and they are formed in an area of strong vertical wind shear. Sources that drive the winds are not understood in light of present models, because they should typically be horizontal. Like Earth, equatorial winds flow against (retrograde) and mid-latitude winds flow with (prograde) the rotation of Uranus. Meanwhile, solar heating should cause expansion toward the equator, and the Coriolis Force should result in retrograde winds, yet observations show the opposite. This is unexpected, but a scientist insightfully relates that it could be due to "internal dynamics." Likewise, in the downstream magnetosphere there are repeated enhancements of proton and electron flows. These time-varying internal dynamics are expected of the Field- dynamical Model.

    Other observations reveal the anticipated. Ammonia concentrations are greater from 15o to 45o latitudes. That is, a 15o spread from the 30o latitudes. Concentrations are strongest in the 30o to 40o South Latitudes and depleted in the South Pole. In contrast, and expected of particle flow, there is a "gap" in methane concentrations at the 30o South Latitude. Thermochemical equilibrium cannot explain the gradients and concentrations of ammonia, sulfur and other chemical species. Likewise, latitude differences require pole to equator variations in temperature-pressure profiles and/or latitude variations of an internal heat source. All of these observations are a very adequate description of the new model.

    Lightning discharges in the atmosphere generate an emission known as the Uranian Electrostatic Discharge. Uranian radio source footpoints are at the 40o to 62o South Latitudes. Much of this Uranian Kilometric Radiation is centered around 45o South Latitude. There are symmetrical emissions in the cone shape of the Field evident at the 45o latitude (about 235o longitude). On the dark side of the Southern Hemisphere, there is a quiet region in the center. This is an accurate description of Field structure, as pictured for the Earth in Tome One. Like the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn there is a differential rotation of the clouds that varies with latitude.

    Like Neptune and Jupiter, the discovery of rings was a surprise as were a number of other features. Again, much more confirms that the Field-dynamical Model is responsible for features on Uranus, and this is discussed in the book.



    News Releases About Uranus



  • Other Similiarities between the Planets -- Uranus' and Saturn's Blue and Red Rings are Similarly Composed and at Similiar Distances from the Planet. Similariiities such as these are more easily understood under the influence of electromagnetic forces, though the main aspect of this sort of research is focused on graviitation, sheparding and impacts. The formation of rings is the result of the fields of the Field-dynamical Model coming into conjunction along the equatorial regions of the planets (most often), as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. [source: de Pater, I, et al. (2006) New Dust Belts of Urnaus: One Ring, Two Ring, Blue Ring, Red Ring. Science 312:92-94].

  • Typical of the Field-dynamical Model, Uranus has a Mid-Latitude Dark Spot. Saturn and Neptune also have this type of feature, and every planet has some phenomena along its mid-latitudes. See the physorg.com article.

  • Uranus is getting stormier as it approaches its equinox. This is expected with the Field-dyanmical Model of Uranus, as outlined in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. The Earth also undergoes major weather and atmospheric changes around the equinox. See the Universetoday.com story.

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    Neptune

    When it was discovered that Neptune had an odd magnetic field too, a comment that seemed essential long ago was finally made. The observation "should force theorists to rethink their ideas about how magnetic fields are generated within the interiors of planets." Planetary geologists tried to explain the offset magnetic field of Uranus by claiming that it was undergoing a polar reversal. But, when it was discovered that Neptune appeared similar it certainly left that explanation open to question. The odds that both planets would be reversing at the same time that Voyager passed by is essentially impossible. The Neptunian magnetic field is "tilted" nearly 50o away from the rotational pole, or it could be said to be at about the 40o latitude if it were not insisted that it is the pole (see Figure 6).

    Observations revealed that there are relatively large non-dipole contributions to the magnetic field. These contributions are similar to the Earth's surface and life contributing to the geomagnetic field. Like Uranus, the offset field of Neptune is not typical of dynamo theory, and is, therefore, "unexplained." These facts alone suggest that a Field-dynamical Model is responsible for the observations.

    Encouraging the idea that it has an internal energy source, Neptune emits 2.7 times the energy it receives from the Sun. Neptune's spin rate was believed to be about 17 hours before the Voyager observations. This spin rate was needed to explain why Neptune radiates much more heat than Uranus. That is, the spin rate is theorized to be related to the mixing of the planet's interior, which affects the rate at which heat reaches the surface where it is radiated away. However, with the 16-hour spin rate, this mixing theory is in trouble. These facts encourage the idea that there is an internal heat source.

    Like the other gaseous planets, the heat distribution is different than what would be expected from solar heating. The poles and equator are warmer than mid-latitudes even though both solar and known internal heat sources differ. Also spots along mid-latitudes show evidence of particle flow, and there are time-varying atmospheric features.

    Neptune, like Uranus, has a subrotating atmosphere at low latitudes, and a superrotating atmosphere at high latitudes. The high latitudes are superrotating because of the spread of the Fields with altitude (more surface area is ionized). Assuming that Neptune rotates ever 16 hours, then the winds blow the "wrong way" relative to the interior. Furthermore, the Solar System's fastest winds appear to whip through Neptune's atmosphere at an astounding 600 meters per second (about 1,340 miles per hour)! The high wind speeds, the persistence of the large oval "storm" systems, and the hour to hour variability of small-scale features were unexpected in an atmosphere that receives one 20th as much energy from internal heat and absorbed sunlight as Jupiter, and only one 350th of that of the Earth. There is no question that these winds are powered by an internal and powerful energy source.

    Typical of the inadequacy of traditional models a group of scientists remark: "The mid-latitude cool bands, reminiscent of Uranus, are not simply explained in terms of radiative forcing. The similarity in the meridional structure of temperature and thermal winds on Neptune and Uranus was unexpected." This is in spite of the differences in solar heating, which is greater in the equatorial region of Neptune and the polar region of Uranus.

    Another observation was made using the University of Hawaii's 2.2-meter telescope. It was discovered that Neptune's northern hemisphere is now brighter that its southern hemisphere. For more than a decade the southern hemisphere has been brighter, although the hemispheres were roughly equal from the late 1970s on. Present models of Neptune offer no explanation for the phenomenon, but with a Field-dynamical Model this is no mystery.

    Even Pluto shows the latitude restricted phenomena of the Field-dynamical Model, though it is very difficult to get good images of Pluto at its orbital distance.

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    Other Similarities

    It is obvious from the above discussion that the planets resemble each other at a number of levels. However, there are additional likenesses between the planets that calls for new models of planetary dynamics. The observations depart from traditional models, as conventional interpretations are at a impasse for explanations.

    One such parallel between the planets involves the dynamics of their atmospheres. Solar energy inputs to each planet's atmosphere can vary by a factor of 1,000. Yet, the cloud-top wind speeds are roughly the same for all the planets from Venus to Neptune. A team of scientists discuss this unexpected phenomenon:

    "That the winds are of the order 100 [meters/second] on all the planets is a challenge that any theory of atmospheric dynamics must face. Wind is perhaps the most fundamental variable in dynamic meteorology, yet there is no unified theory that accounts for the wind speeds observed in all planetary atmospheres. Over the years Voyager wind observations revealed many surprises, including the high-velocity, localized winds in the midst of Jupiter's long-lived features, the high wind speed at Saturn's equator relative to the interior, and the dominance of east-west winds at Uranus despite that planet's peculiar orientation. The resemblance to the other giant planets is probably just the first of Neptune's surprises. The only sure lesson in the science of comparative planetology is humility."

    Wind speeds are similar for all the planets, despite the different atmospheric compositions and distances from the Sun, simply because their dynamics are controlled by the same mechanism: the particle flow of the Field-dynamical Model.

    Other similarities were just as surprising. Both Jupiter and Neptune have great spots that cover approximately 15o in latitude by 30o in longitude, occupy stable positions in latitude bands centered near the same latitude, and are associated with bright, active regions. Present theoretical models cannot account for this resemblance and stability, because they are claimed to be storm centers. Storm centers could not be so similar, and so fixed in position for so long.

    For example, can you imagine a hurricane on Earth staying fixed in position for even a few days? Jupiter's Red Spot has been in the same position since we trained our telescopes on it almost three centuries ago! It is obvious that an underlying mechanism, dynamically related to the interior is constantly supplying energy to the spot, and the cold depths of outer space make the gases reveal its position, unlike the Earth or other inner planets closer to the Sun. Another enigma is the equatorial rotation of the planets and the Sun. Venus, Jupiter, Saturn and the Sun are equatorial superrotators, which is unexplained and unexpected. A group of atmospheric scientists comment on what is required for this phenomenon. Their statement practically asks for the Field-dynamical Model: "Maintaining equatorial superrotation requires some pumping of angular momentum into the equator by organized waves or eddies." They also have a large number of alternating zonal currents that are also unexplained. These phenomena are considered enigmas, because present theories are inadequate.

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    Planetary Rings

    Until little more than a decade ago it was believed that only Saturn had rings. Today every planet that we have been able to study in detail has a ring or rings of some sort. Even the Earth has the equatorial ring-current and equatorial electrojet. Typical of our present focus on gravitational theories, attempts have been made to explain rings gravitationally, but without any real success.

    Sheparding is the proposed mechanism that generates rings. The moons of the planets are said to gravitationally pull on ring particles, causing them to more or less follow the moons. The problem with this theory is immediately apparent in the fact that rings are far too complex in structure, and there are no moons to account for a number of ring features. Here is some of the discussion in The Vital Vastness.

    Because most moons and moonlets have unique and even eccentric orbits, they create what is referred to as resonances. Proposed resonances, a "vibration" caused by the satellites' motion in orbit, are not strong enough to do the job. Accordingly, rings should only be tens of meters wide, but instead are kilometers or thousands of kilometers wide. One of the major flaws of the theory is that the two types of proposed mechanisms of ring confinement, sheparding and self-gravity of the rings, involve unseen satellites that in all probability do not exist outside imagination and predetermined theory.

    Dust grains that pass through the plasma surrounding the planets will exert a drag on the grain (i.e., plasma drag). This would cause a loss in orbital speed and the grains should fall towards the planets. Obviously this does not happen, or the rings would not be there. An original moon(s) that had broken up by some given situation (tidal break-up or collision) does not fit the observations either. Two scientists comment on an observation that reveals the failure of gravitational theory as the sole explanation:

    "Even when the two shepards passed each other (called a conjunction), the ring between them refused to unravel. Between the Voyager encounters, gravity had regained the primary role as the shaper of rings -- electromagnetic forces had lost their appeal -- but conjunctions seemed the most likely time to see gravitational effects."

    Theorists cannot explain how one resonance produces a spiral (density) wave, a second a sharp edge, and a third subtle narrow bands or gaps. Satellites produce turning forces (torques) that tend to confine a ring, but also transfer so much energy that confinement is impossible. In this regard a group of physicists state the inevitable: "Our assessment of this paradox suggests that the accepted description of the sheparding mechanism is seriously flawed."

    The Fields of the Field-dynamical Model come into conjunction along the equator, as they bow back towards the planet. In this way plasma is guided away from the ring plane where it would destroy the rings. This is why observations show that plasma and radiation are relatively absent from the ring plane. Here is an excerpt discussing the role of electrostatic forces and the new model.

    The flow of ionizing radiation would create electrical charges on particles (creating different ions and chemical species), leading to the electrostatic levitation of ring particles. Electric potential developed by a surface in space is theoretically of general astrophysical interest, because it is a widespread phenomenon. Particles with a charge would be lofted by levitation and maintained by electromagnetic fields. Electrostatic bursting would destroy ring particles resulting in short lifetimes for the rings. Therefore, a process is required that continually replenishes the particles. The entire set of facts indicates that the phenomenon has to be time-varying and not in the ring plane itself, and the Fields must deflect from each other along the ring plane, as expected for the Field-dynamical Model.

    The interaction of charged dust particles and the geometry of the Fields would lead to the rings, and their replenishment and individual characteristics. Whenever there is high-velocity flow it would lead to grain destruction and fragmentation, creating gaps, grooves, sharp edges and ethereal rings. Areas of low-velocity flow (or no flow) would lead to grain growth and generate rings. The various charges and atomic species would develop into discrete bands, due to the electrostatic and electromagnetic forces of the Field-dynamical Model. The geometry of the Field-dynamical Model, as well as the particular characteristics of a given planet, lead to the various ring systems (see Figure 8).

    The magnetic field appears to control ring positioning, because they are always oriented in relation to the main magnetic field. This orientation discloses that an interrelationship exists between the Field system, including the main magnetic field, and the rings. A strong interaction between ring particles, radiation near the planet, and the magnetic field have been observed repeatedly.

    Time-varying radio emissions, typical of a particle accelerator, along with helium, were noted in the ring plane. Jupiter, which is theoretically not supposed to have rings, has rings, and its dusty magnetosphere is above and below the ring plane, but not in the ring plane itself. A number of other unexpected observations have also been revealed.

    The surprises were many, but are expected of the new model, and scientists have observed the phenomena. "Profiles of these strange Uranian rings confirmed that the particles tended to spread outward toward the edges of each ring, but were then prevented from going farther, almost as if they were piling up against an impenetrable wall." "Stable, non-transient ring arcs would obviously require a longitudinal confinement mechanism; transient arcs require the continual creation, dispersal, and replenishment of local concentrations of ring material."

    This comment reveals the need for the new model: "What we've been doing has been racking our brains for a mechanism. At the moment we're stuck. Maybe we're just missing something."

    Many enigmas remain for the present theoretical framework. Present theory renders untenable any explanation involving particles in synchronous, planet-aligned rotation. Meanwhile, this is what we find exists for all the planets whose rings have been studied.

    One of the most puzzling features of the rings is their short lifetime. For the most part, they could only be 1,000 years old or less. A ring of dust would have been swept away by solar radiation, plasma drag and micro-meteoroids. Electromagnetic forces, their origin "unknown," deposit the ring material, which is unexpectedly very young. Scientists studying planetary rings comment: "Thus these short timescales remain perhaps the most intriguing puzzle in planetary ring dynamics."

    The Field-dynamical Model produces, maintains and controls the dynamics of the rings. As a result, scientists come to the inevitable conclusion. "Evidence exists for electromagnetic processes in the rings superimposed on the overall gravitational dynamics."

    The composition of the ring particles also indicates the new model, which is particularly obvious in the case of Saturn. Very tiny or micron-sized beads of ice would have a very short life span, because they would erode due to blows from micro-meteorites and atomic-scale disintegration. Like evidence on Mars, the Moon and elsewhere, there has to be a source of water, as this quote indicates: "Apparently a million tons of water had somehow been dispersed as micron droplets and quick-frozen in space." Likewise, Jupiter has water, ammonia and methane as ring components. Hydrogen fusion produces very active species of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, which could combine to produce water (or calthrate hydrates), ammonia, and hydrocarbons, such as methane.

    Ring thickness is a mere five or ten meters (15 to 30 feet) for rings that are 270,000 kilometers (167,400 miles) across! Scientists describe how this relationship within a portion of the rings compares with Earthly phenomena: "If the depth of the Atlantic Ocean were in the same proportion to its 4,000-kilometer breadth as this thickness is to the breadth of the rings, the abyssal depths of the Atlantic would not quite reach 1 meter; you could never get in over your head."

    Saturn's rings have waves or ripples that move inward, unlike a pebble tossed into a pond, as would occur with gravitation. A moon, such as Mimas, would cause outward-propagating spiraling (density) waves, which would bring particles about 500 meters (165 feet) above and below the ring plane. Saturn's rings are quite substantially thinner than this (by a factor of 100 in some cases). Furthermore, these ripples are more like the grooves of a phonograph record. To think that gravity could produce this is like claiming a huge steel ball at a distance could put grooves in a vinyl disc generating a musical record. As most of us know, it requires controlled electromagnetic equipment to produce such recordings. Likewise, controlled electromagnetic forces are required to produce ring grooves, braids and kinks.

    Luminous phenomena in the vicinity of the rings have been observed repeatedly, and prove that electrostatic forces are at work. From the 18th Century onwards luminous points on the ring edge, luminous objects and the disappearance of one side of Saturn's rings have been observed. One astronomer (Maurice Ainslie) observed a luminous object pass through the rings and devour ring material as it moved. This object was a mass of ionizing radiation, which can destroy ring material. The rings are known to change in brightness, evidently due to time-varying particle flow. White spots where noted on the rings and the planet numerous times. Bright projections on the rings and "sparkling flocculence" where also observed. For example, a white projection was seen near a white spot at the edge of the south equatorial band on 29 September 1910. Voyager 1 took a photo of Saturn and five of its moons, which included an unexpected luminous object. Images of the F-ring show variable luminosity that includes observations of a helical core and emission jets (see Plate 18).

    One event, in late September 1990, a large white spot appeared on Saturn. Shortly following, this spot developed into a 21,000-kilometer (1,305-mile) long oval. By November, it had developed into a planet-encircling band. Other white spots were observed in 1876, 1903, 1933 and 1960. Saturn's orbital period around the Sun is 29.4 years, which is close to the times of these observations, and may indicate a Saturn-solar linkage is involved.

    There are a variety of features in rings that could never be produced by gravity. These include very thin rings, gaps, grooves, eccentric rings, braids, spirals, ripples and kinks. Saturn has dark wedge-shaped spokes that reappear in the same locations, are along mid-latitudes and rotate with the planet.

    Planetary physicists assert that, "The spokes were not darker particles or areas of fewer particles; they are microscopic particles that are perhaps elevated above the main part of the ring by some magnetic-electrostatic process." "However, the question, how relatively weak electromagnetic interactions can exercise such a profound effect has remained a major puzzle." Meanwhile, electric and magnetic fields and electrostatic effects along Field lines in combination are responsible for these features.

    A relatively dense plasma is required near the rings in order to generate a strong enough surface electric field to lift dust particles off the rings. A team of scientists discuss this in the framework of current theories: "It is unlikely that the average plasma density near the rings is large enough to do this. As long as the drifting plasma is dense enough, dust will be elevated marking the radial trail of the plasma."

    This trail reveals the Field-dynamical Model, because the greatest spoke activity is spaced at 45o intervals in longitude (magnetic longitude bins of 45o). Likewise, the Fields on Earth, as noted in Tome One, are similarly spaced. A funnel shape to the Field would account for the wedge shape of the spokes. Plasma acceleration along field lines is the suggested mechanism (field-aligned currents parallel to the magnetic field). Electrons are ejected from parts of Saturn's rings, and possess significant electrical conductivity. In contrast, present theory leaves open the questions of the origin of the dense plasma and the time-varying nature of spoke activity.

    The Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED), and the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) were observed in a solar linkage. The new model is again evident in that SED, SKR, spoke, and aurora fluctuate together. Since each of these phenomena occur in different locations, yet fluctuate together, there must be a model that integrates them, and can account for other ring features and associated phenomena.

    One author gives very convincing evidence that electromagnetic forces are involved in ring formation and dynamics, and discusses the failure of gravitational theories. The dynamics of the rings, such as their flat or planar shape is one example: "Planar shapes can be constructed with electro-potential fields, but only with appropriate field combinations. Hence, such combinations are not likely to occur [and] clearly some new mechanism is called for." The short timescale for ring systems is also an unsolved problem for conventional theorists. The conclusions are clear: "Each is constrained to an orbit close to the equator of these oblate giants, appears to be much younger than its planet, and requires ongoing processes to maintain its very existence."

    So far, rings appear to be a universal phenomena for the planets in our Solar System. The evidence is particularly obvious for Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune and Uranus. Venus has a ring, particle density, brightness emissions, heat (Kelvin) waves, and a structured cloud pattern along its equator. Mercury has had dark, nebulous rings with an occasional violent tinge. Mars has many phenomena along the equator, but no ring, per say, has been observed as yet. However, the next mission will undoubtedly discover some form of ring phenomena if nothing but a ring current in the magnetosphere. Pluto is too far away and eccentric in its orbit to distinguish any real details, let alone rings. However, the ice caps do grow only to the equator, and a reddish band exists along the equator -- so ring phenomena seem likely. Unified Theory predicts that more rings will be found when sufficient observational data are collected.

    Planetary rings and moons' orbits tend to be the narrowest near the planet and thicken away from the planet. For example, Jupiter's ring is a wedge shape with its inner region about 28.5% of the outer region. This is to be expected from the Field geometry. Likewise, Jupiter's moons orbit the planet along the equatorial plane until the outer moons (Leda, Himalia, Elara, Lysithea, Ananke, Carme, Pasiphae and Sinope) are reached who orbit above and below the plane. This is also true of the Saturnian and Neptunian systems.

    This arrangement is what we also find with planetary rings, and other celestial objects.

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    Other Celestial Objects


    Stars, Galaxies and Beyond

    Though stars, galaxies and other celestial objects appear different, they have similar phenomena. All have outflowing and inflowing winds at the poles, rings of matter that are usually equatorial, and display phenomena along mid-latitudes. For example, our Sun has a ring of globular matter and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field along the ecliptic plane, and inflowing and outflowing winds at the poles, such as polar faculae and the polar topknots. Also, sunspots and other solar eruptions are most active along mid-latitudes. The planets themselves form a ring along the ecliptic plane, and even widen further away from the Sun, as do planetary rings.

    Galaxies have polar winds in the form of jets and anti-jets, stars form rings along the equator, and supernova, and protoplanetary and planetary nebulae form along the equator. The spiral arms of galaxies, along with their magnetic fields, occur along the equator. When stars form they have inflowing and outflowing winds at their poles, and have equatorial rings of matter that eventually form planets. Clusters and Super Clusters of galaxies also have rings of stars, a core of stars, and display polar features. Even the large-scale structure of the Universe displays ring-like and mid-latitude features, even the sinusoidal arrangement typical of the Fields on the planets. These are all discussed in The Vital Vastness.


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    And see the news stories below.




    News Releases About Planets, Stars, Galaxies and Beyond




  • A Giant Thunderstorm was Observed on Saturn's 35o to 41o North Latitude as Could be Expected of the Field-dynamical Model of Saturn, and Seem to be Triggered by its Solar Linkage. There are also similar storms in the southern hemisphere. Source: G. Fischer, G., et al (2011) A giant thunderstorm on Saturn. Nature 475:75Ė77


  • Finally the Question is Being Asked Whether Fluid Motions (Dynamics) can Explain Quantum Mechanics and Describe Unification. One of the biggest barriers in science is typically not giving the mechanical forces and/or intergalactic fields a role in in astrophysics and unification, but this research is contemplating their role. See the Physicsworld.com article.


  • Two Different Studies Reveal what is Really Going on in Black Holes. As discussed in black holes are the result of electromagnetic forces and plasma, and have strong collimated ionized jets that also eject X-ray. Both of which do not require supermassive black holes, but electromagnetic wormholes.


  • Some Comets in the Oort Cloud Seem to be From Other Solar Systems, as well. Both these and Sungrazers (comets that crash into the Sun) bring back some of the lost energy and mass due to solar activity. They would then make the Solar System a less finite system, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the World-science.net news release. In fact, a recent observation of the Sun shows that it remains remarkably constatnt in size, despite the losses due to solar activity.


  • Thermonuclear Fusion is Now Seen as a Common Aspect of Planet Formation. See the Physorg.com


  • A New Discovery -- Hydrogen at High Pressure Becomes Superconducting and Metallic. This fits well with the Field-dynamical Model where the core is hydrogen under high pressure and confinement (superconducting layer) producing hydrogen fusion. Scientists normally consider that the interior of a planet, say Earth, is metallic, but few, if any, consider that it might be hydrogen under high pressure. See the Physorg.com news release.

  • The Search for Dark Matter over the Last Two Decades has Provided No Direct Evidence that it Actually Exists. No surprise here, as the hypothesis is not provable, and it would be unable to explain all of the current discrepancies between actual measurements and predictions based on present-day theoretical models. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Our Galaxy has a Ring-like Glow of X-rays, and a Ring-like Structure Occurs on All Celestial Objects as the Field-dynamical Model's Field Merge Along the Ring Plane. See the Physorg.com news release.

  • There is also a Circular Emission of Gamma-Rays that Surrounds the Center. This could easily be compared to the auroras on planets, only it is a much stronger energy source. See the Physorg.com news release.

  • Galaxies Form too Fast for the Present Theory of Formation due to the Effects of Gravity, Disclosing the Fact that New Theories are Needed. The theory presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two involves the mechanical forces and space plasmas with objects forming much more quickly. See the Physorg.com news article.

  • Star Formation is Occuring Too Close to a Black Hole for it to be Supermassive, as Present Theory Proposes. Rather, as proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, the centers of galaxies are not supermassive, but a field that can be considered a wormhole or white hole. See the Space.com article.

  • Now Their Thinking -- Planet Formation Involves the Coriolis Force and Shear (e.g., Centrifugal force). This was presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two as an aspect of celestial object formation and the emergence of the Field-dynamical Model. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Likewise, Black Holes have a "Donut" Shape (Toriodial Shape) which is the Effect of the Centrifugal Force and is an Aspect of the Field-dynamical Model. This is discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Redorbit article.

  • Early Galaxies had Strong Magnetic Fields -- As Strong as Those of Today. This discovery forces a rethinking of how galaxies are formed. With the Field-dynamical Model this is to be expected, as the plasma of the forming galaxy both strengthens and is controlled by the model -- a system of fields that are also magnetic. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the 2MediaGroup news item, Physorg.com article, and NewScientist.com article. Meanwhile, the origin and growth of magnetic fields in galaxies are still something of a mystery to astronomers and astrophysicists who generally do not consider magnetic fields in galaxies, but will now have to. [source: Bernet, M.L., et al (2008) Strong magnetic fields in normal galaxies at high redshift. Nature 454: 302-304].

  • A New Galaxy Survey has Cast Considerable Doubt on Cold, Dark Matter. And it should, as the present gravitational prespective is only a hypothesis that clings to the mass-matter-gravity focus in astronomy (i.e., Newtonian dynamics). See the Physicsworld.com article.

  • Filaments that Connect to Galaxy Formation are Thought to be Dark Matter. That is the hypothesis of the conventional theory, but as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two these filaments are the result of an intergalactic system of fields. Scientists are not considering this, because it would tend to look like more order than proposed and might contribute to the problem of "prearrangement." See the Physicsweb.org article.

  • Supersonic Winds of 9,000 mph (14,000 k/h) Whip around Distant Gaseous Planets. The planets are very close to the parent stars and one side always faces the star. Yet, unexpectedly the planets are super hot on all sides. The origin of the winds is a mystery, except not when considering a Field-dynamical Model. See the BBC.co.uk article.

  • The Sun's South Pole is Cooler than its North Pole, and Other Mysteries Observed with the Spacecraft Ulysses. Though near the lowest point during solar minimum the Sun sent out huge bursts of solar wind particles and they came from near the equator, but spewed out from the poles. The wind has to follow magnetic field lines, but present theory doesn't account for this. Meanwhile, an understanding of the Field-dynamical Model of the Sun, discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two would allow for the prediction of these observations. See the NASA and the Sciencedaily.com articles.

  • They Finally Got it Right! The Milky Way's Central Engine is Seen as a Giant Particle Accelerator. This theory was brought forth in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. The Fields of the Field-dynamical Model are time-varying particle accelerators. See the msnbe.msn.com and the Physorg.com news items.

  • Black Holes are Instead Wormholes. Wormholes mimic black holes so well that it would make it virtually impossible to tell them apart. This is the problem in present black hole hypotheses, they are nearly always descriibed as supermassive, which is an assumption. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physics.about.com news release (take note of the wormhole illustration).

  • A Huge Intergalactic Plasma Cloud that Stretches More than Six Million Light-Years Across has been Discovered. This is to be expected from the intergalactic system of fields discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Pre-Life Molecules are also Found in Comets. See the innovation-report.com article. See the next entry.

  • Colliding Galaxies Do Not Destroy Each Other, But Produce Stars. Had this been something small on Earth we would probably think it is bioloigcal -- reproduction. The real point is that it trully is a living cosmos. See the World-Science.net article.

  • A Study Shows that there is a Slender Stream of Stars Flowing Over the Milky Way. This reveals the fact that there is a intergalactic field-system, as do other observations. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physorg.com article. See also the next few entries.

  • A Bar in the Milky Way's Center Reveals More Stability Than Current Theories Allow. Current models of galaxies do not have an explanation for the bar seen in many galaxies, nor do they explain the stars so close to the black hole, which is assumed to be supermassive. See the NewScientist.com story.

  • A Microwave Study of the Universe (Metagalaxy) Shows Much More Order than Theorized, Where Galaxies Lie Along an "Axis of Evil." This completely contradicts the standard model of the universe. The article also addresses the fact that in at least some cases stars are too close to black holes for the supermassive theory of black holes. These aspects of the universe and black holes are discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and are expected of the Field-dynamical Model. This "Axis of Evil" is very much like a ring around a planet. Black holes are not supermassive, but a field with time-varying acceleration (the reason there is an unexpected radiation emitted), and this is why stars can be very close to the black holes. Moreover, there is a ring-like structure that is perpendicular to a dipole structure, typical of the Field-dynamical Model. The whole thing raises questions about the Big Bang theory and shows much more order than originally thought. See the Pravada news report. [Source: Chown, M. (2005) 'Axis of evil' warps cosmic background. New Scientist 188(2522):19]. Also see the following entries.

  • Galaxies are Four Times More Common in the Direction of Gamma-Ray Bursts Than in the Direction of Quasars. Again, this could be expected of a system of intergalactic fields that produce the gamma-ray bursts. See the Malaysiansun.com, and the Universetoday.com articles. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • The Universe is Filled with Filaments and Aligned Galaxies Revealing a Intergalactic System of Fields. There are filaments -- long streams of light (particles) -- that stretch at least 490,000 light years across. Galaxies are also aligned across large regions of the universe. These observations confirm the discussion in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physorg.com articles on giant filaments and aligned galaxies. Note that the article on aligned galaxies suggests that it is the effects of dark matter, an unproven and unprovable assumption. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • Huge Milky Way-Sized "Tunnel" is Found Streaming from a Galactic Cluster. The so-called tunnel appears to be ejected from the galactic cluster's central region. While the article suggests that it is the result of "cosmic battles" between black holes, it can more easily be described as an intergalactic field, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Redorbit.com article. See also the previous and the next entries.

  • Cosmic Blob of Galaxies and Gas (Plasma) From the Largest Known Object in the Universe. Again, this conforms with an intergalactic system of fields. See the CNN.com story. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • The Case of the Missing Black Holes? More Evidence of a System of Intergalactic Fields. Looking a the background radiation with X-ray instruments shows X-rays, but no associated black holes, believed to be the source of the X-rays. Meanwhile, the intergalactic fields are like particle accelerators, which produce X-rays as a by-product of acceleration. See the Universetoday.com article. See also the previous and the following entries.

  • Supersonic Winds of 9,000 mph (14,000 k/mh) Whip around Distant Gaseous Planets. The planets are very close to the parent stars and one side always faces the star. Yet, unexpectedly the planets are super hot on all sides. The origin of the winds is a mystery, except not when considering a Field-dynamical Model. See the BBC.co.uk article.

  • Similarities are Once Again Noted for Members of the Solar System. The outer gaseous planets all have systems that share a striking similarity. That similarity is that the total mass of each satellite system compared to the mass of its host planet is very nearly a constant ratio, roughly 1:10,000. See the Physorg.com news item. [source: Canup, R.M., Ward, R.W. (2006) A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets. Nature 441:834-839]. See also the previous entry.

  • Asteroids Show Signs of Reaching High Temperatures, But Astrophysicists Wonder Why. With the hydrogen fusion core of the Field-dynamical Model of the planets there is the ejectionof material into space. This material would have been heated and this is probably the reason for the evidence of asteroids being heated. See the
  • Planet Forms Like a Star. As discussed in The Vital Vastness stars and planets have the same underlying structure in the form of the Field-dynamical Model. In fact, planets have sun-like structures in their cores. See the New Scientist story.

  • Planet Forms Like a Star. As discussed in The Vital Vastness stars and planets have the same underlying structure in the form of the Field-dynamical Model. In fact, planets have sun-like structures in their cores. See the New Scientist story.

  • A Planetary Disk has Two Oppoiste Rotations Around a Star. This in contrast to the present theory that gravity is the main driving force in the formation of planets around a star. This, however, supports the theory of planet formation presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. The Field-dynamical Model of stars creates the disk much like the rings around planets, a result of fields coming into conjunction along the equator. These fields can and do accelerate particles in opposite directions, as occurs with the aurora. See the Spacedaily.com story.

  • Giant Planets Appear to Have Electrical Rocks at Their Cores. This would fit well with the Field-dynamical Model of planets, where the outer core is an electrical conductor and aids in confinment of a thermonucelar fusion core. See the Spacedaily.com article. [source: Umemoto, K, et al (2006) Dissociation of MgSiO3 in the Cores of Gas Giants and Terrestrial Exoplanets. Science 311:983-986].

  • Core Accretion is the Standard Theory of Planet Formation, But it Doesn't Explain the Formation of Giant Gas Planets. The problem is that the theory is a gravitational theory where dust, ice and rocks smash into each other until a huge mass forms (accretion). Left out are the mechanical forces in the plasma of the protoplanetary nebulae and the structure they form -- mechanical forces are on an equal level with gravitation. This causes the formation of the Field-dynamical Model due to the centrifugal and Coriolis forces, and the interaction of the Sun's Interplanetary Magnetic Field, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the MSNBC.com news article.

  • Young Meteorites Defy Present Theory of Solar System's Formation. While the author of the study suggests that they formed by a collision of two planetary embryos, they could have formed as the result of planetary ejection. Regardless, this shows that the so-called linear process of the Solar System's formation is not supported. See the Spacedaily.com story. [original source: Krot, A.N., etal. (2005) Young chondrules in CB chondrites from a giant impact in the early Solar System. Nature 436:989-992]

  • A Vast New Array of Objects Have Been Discovered in the Outreaches of the Solar System. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two these objects display the most eccentric orbits the further they are from the Sun. See the Space.com article.

  • The observation of a huge extrasolar planet puts present theories about planet formation -- that claim planets are formed by the gravitational collapse of the star's dust and gas (accretion) -- into question. See the Innovationsreport.com story. Moreover, another extrasolar planet is too young for current theories on planet formation. The planet is only 100,000 to 500,000 years old, and this doesn't fit the supposed accretion (condensing and collisions of small bodies) of matter. This does fit the theory proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, which states that plasma from the central star is churned by mechanical forces (the centrifugal and Coriolis forces) producing the Field-dynamical Model much faster than accretion. See the Spacedaily.com story, and the Universetoday.com story.

  • The Buliding Blocks of Life are Throughout the Universe. It truly is a living universe as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos. See the Physorg.com article, and the MSNBC story.

  • Just as the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM), and Other Planets Have Ejected Objects, The Milky Way has Ejected a Star into Intergalactic Space. See the Universetoday.com story, and the Physorg.com article. See next entry.

  • For the first time astronomers have found evidence of magnetic fields in planetary nebulae. Yet, this very thing was written about in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and the shapes of the nebulae -- some 80% are not spherical -- are the result of the field-dynamical model. See the PhysOrg.com article, and the RedNova.com article

  • Like the Earth, Space is in the Shape of a Dodecahedron (twelve-sided). As discussed in The Vital Vastness the Earth has twelve fields and that the shape of the Earth is like a tweleve-sided soccer ball. In a study of the Universe disclosed that space itself is also in this shape. [Ellis, G.F.R. (2003) Cosmology: The shape of the Universe. Nature Volume 425, pp. 565-567 and Klarrech, E. (2003) The Shape of Space. Science News Volume 164, pp. 296-297 (November 8, 2003)]

  • Extrasolar Planet Found to Have Carbon and Oxygen -- Could There Be Life? See the Hubble Newscenter news release.

  • More Evidence that Objects Formed More Quickly Than can be Accounted for by Gravity Alone. See the Space Daily news release and Universe Today news item. Or maybe they are not so distant and old as thought.

  • Helium-4 Maybe a Super Solid under Cerain Conditions. As discussed in The Vital Vastness - Volume Two helium, the second most abundant element in the universe, may have more to do with the formation of celestial objects when in a solid state. See the Space Daily news story.

  • The Early Universe was Much More Mature and Ordered Than Previously Thought. See the Universe Today story.

  • Scientists Finally Note that the True Shape of the Universe is in the Field-dynamical Model Structure. Just like the Earth and other celestial objects, the universe is observed to be a twelve-sided spherical form, known as a Dodecahedron -- something like a soccer ball. This was discussed more than a years ago here and in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. [Ellis, G.F.R. (2003) Cosmology: The shape of the Universe. Nature 425, 566 - 567; Luminet, J.-P. (2003) Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background. Nature 425, 593 - 595]. See also the Nature news release, and the Discovery.com story.

  • A New Map of the Universe Has Raised Some Important Questions About Current Theories. For one, the estimated age of the Universe has mostly been between 12 ans 15 billion years, some even went as far as 20 billion years, but the more accurate microwave findings give an age of 13.7 billion years. One of the real surprises was the discovery that the first stars began shining a mere 200 million years after the Big Bang. That's not enough time for the proposed gravitional formation of galaxies, where stars form. Moreover, the results of this microwave mapping suggest that only 4% of the Universe is ordinary matter, 23% is supposed to be dark matter -- an unproven and merely hypothetical concept -- and 73% is supposed to be some "dark energy" -- another unproven assumption -- that propels the expansion of the Universe. In The Vital Vastness: Volume Two it was noted that a number of observations fit more with an intergalatic system of fields, where there is no need for "dark matter" or "dark energy." Moreover, these newest findings come after the discovery that microwaves are polarized, an effect that occurs with fields. See the NewScientist.com story (also note the links to related stories). Furthermore, the evidence also suggests that the Universe will "expand" forever -- the word "expand" is used to disregard the possibility that it is "growing" -- as in a living cosmos. See the BBC news story. See also a related NASA news story.

  • Just Like Protoplanetary Nebula, the Planets' Magnetospheres, and Numerous Other Celestial Objects, the Universe Itself is Donut-Shaped. See the New York Times story.

  • The Living Universe has been Mapped, as a Three Dimensional Map of the Protein Universe. The Universe is filled with protein that's ready to produce life. See the SpaceDaily.com story.

  • Astronomers Now Admit that the Rings Around Stars are Controlled by Magnetic Fields. This is discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and is the result of the Field-dynamical Model which has magnetic fields interacting along the equatorial region. As can be noted in this news release the rings appear and disappear, revealing the time-varying nature of the model. See the rednova.com news release.

  • Like the Planets with Their Rings, the Sun with its Ring of Globular Solar Plasma, the Solar System with its Ring of Planets, Planetary and Protoplanetary Nebulae with their Rings of Condensing Gas and Dust, Galaxies with their Rings of Stars, and Galactic Clusters with their Rings of Galaxies, the Universe itself is Remarkably Flat. See the Spacedaily.com story on the flat Universe. This is to be expected, as briefly discussed in the webpage The Similarities of the Planets (and Other Celestial Objects), and in detail in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See also the next news item.

  • Ringed Planets Seem to be a Natural Occurrence Around Distant Stars. A Saturn-like planet has again been found orbiting a distant star. See the Space.com story, and the webpage The Similarities of the Planets (and Other Celestial Objects), and for more detail see The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See also this NewScientist.com story.

  • A Giant Intergalactic Cobweb. This is what NASA is calling a vast array of cosmic helium clouds that fill the void between galaxies. The discoveries where made after analyses from the Hubble Telescope and the spacecraft FUSE. As written in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two there is evdience, now this included, that there is a system of intergalactic fields, guiding galaxy formation. See the full NASA news story.

  • An Intergalactic Particle Accelerator is Observed Coming from the Heart of the Milky Way. While the scientists in the article are quoted describing this as the effect of a supernova or even a black hole, it is only conventional thought that makes them reach this conclusion. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two there is evidence of a web of intergalactic fields. See the articles from PhysOrg.com and PhysOrg.com on Gamma-rays. See also the previous and the next entries.

  • High-Energy Particles are Streaming Out of a Young Star in the Shape of a Tornado. This is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model of stars discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and is the result of a vortex within a field that is part of the process of particle acceleration. See the Space.com article. Also see the previous entries.

  • Black Holes are Much More Numerous than Previously Thought. Moreover, there are point sources of X-rays and they are not scattered across the sky -- what was once thought to be a truly diffuse cosmic x-ray background radiation, actually comes from point sources. This contradicts the proposed scenario of a Big Bang and the gravitational collapse of matter into black holes. It does, however, strengthen the notion that there is a system of intergalactic fields, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Technocrat.net article, and the Penn State news release.

  • Finally, Evidence that Magnetic Processes are at Work in Black Holes and their Accretion Disks. This was proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and reveals the Field-dynamical Model of black holes and galaxies, quasars and neutron stars. See the Spaceref.com. [note: there are links to more information]. Also see the previous two entries.

  • Giant Planets Appear to Have Electrical Rocks at Their Cores. This would fit well with the Field-dynamical Model of planets, where the outer core is an electrical conductor and aids in confinment of a thermonucelar fusion core. See the Spacedaily.com article. [source: Umemoto, K, et al (2006) Dissociation of MgSiO3 in the Cores of Gas Giants and Terrestrial Exoplanets. Science 311:983-986].

  • Core Accretion is the Standard Theory of Planet Formation, But it Doesn't Explain the Formation of Giant Gas Planets. The problem is that the theory is a gravitational theory where dust, ice and rocks smash into each other until a huge mass forms (accretion). Left out are the mechanical forces in the plasma of the protoplanetary nebulae and the structure they form -- mechanical forces are on an equal level with gravitation. This causes the formation of the Field-dynamical Model due to the centrifugal and Coriolis forces, and the interaction of the Sun's Interplanetary Magnetic Field, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the MSNBC.com news article.

  • A Nebula is Found that has a Structure Similar to the Helix of DNA. This can readily be explained by a field that accelerates plasma in two different directions at the same time, such as occurs in the aurora. This finding inidcates that there is a field in the galactic center. See the NationalGeographic article. [source: Morris, M., et al. (2006) A Magnetic Torus Wave Near the Galactic Centre Traced by a 'Double Helix' Nebula. Nature 440:308-310].

  • A Distant Star is Seen Spewing Out Jets in a Corkscrew Emission Along a Strong Magnetic Field. A corkscrew emission along magnetic field lines is typical of the Field-dynamical Model of stars presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. Yet, the conventional interpretation is that the emission's corkscrew shape has to do with the star's spin. The jets are also emitting water molecules, supporting the notion that water can be produced with the chemical reactions produce by hydrogen fusion, and maybe responsible for the water seen on some planets, such as the Earth. See the Universetoday.com story.

  • New Quasar Model Finally Gets the Picture Straight. New observations of a quasar have shown that the Field-dynamical Model is clearly evident. There is magnetic dipole, a "ring" (accretion disk), mid-latitute structure, and magnetic reconnection processes, all of which could be predicted of the model. They even counter the supermassive black hole scenario. All of this was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the Physorg.com article. See also the next entry.

  • Similarities are Once Again Noted for Members of the Solar System. The outer gaseous planets all have systems that share a striking similarity. That similarity is that the total mass of each satellite system compared to the mass of its host planet is very nearly a constant ratio, roughly 1:10,000. See the Physorg.com news item. [source: Canup, R.M., Ward, R.W. (2006) A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets. Nature 441:834-839]. See also the previous entry.

  • Finally, Evidence for Magnetic Processes are at Work in Black Holes and their Accreation Disks. This was proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and reveals the Field-dynamical Model of black holes and galaxies, quasars and neutron stars. This conclusively shows that black hole phenomena is much more than supermassive and driven by gravitation. See the Spaceref.com. (note: there are links to more information). [source: Miller, .M., et al (2006) The magnetic nature of disk accretion onto black holes. Nature 441:953-955]

  • High-Energy Particles are Streaming Out of a Young Star in the Shape of a Tornado. This is to be expected of the Field-dynamical Model of stars discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and is the result of a vortex within a field that is part of the process of particle acceleration. See the Space.com article. Also see the previous entries.

  • Finally, Evidence that Magnetic Processes are at Work in Black Holes and their Accreation Disks. This was proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two and reveals the Field-dynamical Model of black holes and galaxies, quasars and neutron stars. See the Spaceref.com. [note: there are links to more information]. Also see the previous two entries.

  • Giant Planets Appear to Have Electrical Rocks at Their Cores. This would fit well with the Field-dynamical Model of planets, where the outer core is an electrical conductor and aids in confinment of a thermonucelar fusion core. See the Spacedaily.com article. [source: Umemoto, K, et al (2006) Dissociation of MgSiO3 in the Cores of Gas Giants and Terrestrial Exoplanets. Science 311:983-986].

  • Core Accretion is the Standard Theory of Planet Formation, But it Doesn't Explain the Formation of Giant Gas Planets. The problem is that the theory is a gravitational theory where dust, ice and rocks smash into each other until a huge mass forms (accretion). Left out are the mechanical forces in the plasma of the protoplanetary nebulae and the structure they form -- mechanical forces are on an equal level with gravitation. This causes the formation of the Field-dynamical Model due to the centrifugal and Coriolis forces, and the interaction of the Sun's Interplanetary Magnetic Field, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See the MSNBC.com news article.

  • A Nebula is Found that has a Structure Similar to the Helix of DNA. This can readily be explained by a field that accelerates plasma in two different directions at the same time, such as occurs in the aurora. This finding inidcates that there is a field in the galactic center. See the NationalGeographic article. [source: Morris, M., et al. (2006) A Magnetic Torus Wave Near the Galactic Centre Traced by a 'Double Helix' Nebula. Nature 440:308-310].

  • A Distant Star is Seen Spewing Out Jets in a Corkscrew Emission Along a Strong Magnetic Field. A corkscrew emission along magnetic field lines is typical of the Field-dynamical Model of stars presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. Yet, the conventional interpretation is that the emission's corkscrew shape has to do with the star's spin. The jets are also emitting water molecules, supporting the notion that water can be produced with the chemical reactions produce by hydrogen fusion, and maybe responsible for the water seen on some planets, such as the Earth. See the Universetoday.com story.

  • The Milky Way Ejects Stars into Intergalactic Space. Just like the ejection of material from planets there is ejection from galaxies -- both are in the Field-dynamical Model, and so, this could be expected. See the Space.com story.

  • An X-ray Emitting Star Reveals its Field-dynamical Model Structure with Complex Magnetic Fields. See the Redorbit.com Story.

  • A Planetary Disk has Two Oppoiste Rotations Around a Star. This in contrast to the present theory that gravity is the main driving force in the formation of planets around a star. This, however, supports the theory of planet formation presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. The Field-dynamical Model of stars creates the disk much like the rings around planets, a result of fields coming into conjunction along the equator. These fields can and do accelerate particles in opposite directions, as occurs with the aurora. See the Spacedaily.com story.

  • They're in Search of Gravitomagnetism, but Don't Consider its Role in the Formation of Celestial Objects. With a spinning object gravitomagnetism twists space-time like a vortex, and this is the reason for the formation of fields in the Field-dynamical Model of objects presented in The Vital Vastness. See the Space Daily article on the search for gravitomagnetism.

  • Scientists Finally Note that the True Shape of the Universe is in the Field-dynamical Model Structure. Just like the Earth and other celestial objects, the universe is observed to be a twelve-sided spherical form, known as a Dodecahedron -- something like a soccer ball. This was discussed more than years ago here and in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. [Ellis, G.F.R. (2003) Cosmology: The shape of the Universe. Nature 425, 566 - 567; Luminet, J.-P. (2003) Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background. Nature 425, 593 - 595]. See also the Nature news release, and the Discovery.com story.

  • More Trouble for the Supermassive Black Hole Theory. Looking at our galaxy's -- the Milky Way -- core a surprise showed up. There near the core was an usually young and massive star, and such stars have no business being there. It was thought that only light and old stars were near the center. [Ghez AM, et al. (2003) The first measurement of spectral lines in a short-period star bound to the Galaxy's central black hole: A paradox of youth. Astrophysical Journal 586 (2): L127-L131].

  • Polarization of a Gamma-ray Burster (GRB) indicates that there is a very strong magnetic field associated with the GRB. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, and is expected of the Field-dynamical Model. See the artcile for more details [Coburn, W., Boggs, S.E. (2003) Polarization of the prompt (gamma)-ray emmission from the (gamma)-ray burst of 6 December 2002. Nature 423:415-417].

  • A Black Hole Disappears and Reappears Leaving Scientists in an Apparent Dilemma for Explanations. A black hole in the star cluster, M51, was observed and then on trying to reexamine it, it couldn't be found. This very phenomena is, however, completely expected from the model presented in The Vital Vastness: Volume Two, which calls for a time-varying field as the black hole, not the supermassive theory so fixated on today. Scientists tend to try to explain everything as matter, mass and gravity due to more than three centuries of Newtonian physics. Note how the story indicates that black holes that are not supermassive have also been observed. See the MSNBC News story. Be sure to note the link to the video animation of a black hole (on the left panel of the screen)-- very real looking.

  • A New Map of the Universe Has Raised Some Important Questions About Current Theories. For one, the estimated age of the Universe has mostly been between 12 ans 15 billion years, some even went as far as 20 billion years, but the more accurate microwave findings give an age of 13.7 billion years. One of the real surprises was the discovery that the first stars began shining a mere 200 million years after the Big Bang. That's not enough time for the proposed gravitional formation of galaxies, where stars form. Moreover, the results of this microwave mapping suggest that only 4% of the Universe is ordinary matter, 23% is supposed to be dark matter -- an unproven and merely hypothetical concept -- and 73% is supposed to be some "dark energy" -- another unproven assumption -- that propels the expansion of the Universe. In The Vital Vastness: Volume Two it was noted that a number of observations fit more with an intergalactic system of fields, where there is no need for "dark matter' or "dark energy." Moreover, these newest findings come after the discovery that microwaves are polarized, an effect that occurs with fields. See the NewScientist.com story (also note the links to related stories). Furthermore, the evidence also suggests that the Universe will "expand" forever -- the word "expand" is used to disregard the possibility that it is "growing" -- as in a living cosmos. See the BBC news story. See also a related NASA news story.

  • Black Holes and Galaxies in Co-Evolution, and the Mysterious Quasar. Black holes and galaxies are now being concerned as objects that evolve together. However, the problem is that the theoretical point of view is that the black hole is thought of as supermassive. Meanwhile, quasars are then thought of as having black holes more massive than a hundreds of galaxies, and they formed -- according to present theoretical perspectives -- when the Universe was only about 10% of its present age. Quasars are powered by black holes that supposedly weigh more than a billion suns. How did they get so big so fast is the unanswered question in present theoretical perspectives. Notwithstanding, this whole perspective could be wrong and black holes may not be massive at all, but fields that accelerate mass. See Quasars as Ejection Phenomena and the Redshift Controversy and The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. Meanwhile, there is at least a new perspective that doesn't see black holes as destructive monsters. See the Space.com story. For a related story see Physicsweb article.

  • Black holes are not as envisioned, as they are found in unexpected places. Black holes do not show the always expected evidence of supermassiveness. Moreover, they are being found in unexpected places and are more common that previously thought. See the full ScienceDaily.com story.

  • Like the planets with their rings, the Sun with is ring of globular solar plasma, the Solar System with its ring of planets, planetary and protoplanetary nebulae with their rings of condensing gas and dust, galaxies with their rings of stars, and galactic clusters with their rings of galaxies, the Universe itself is remarkably flat. See the Spacedaily.com story on the flat Universe. This is to be expected, as briefly discussed in this webpage, and in detail in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See also the next news item.

  • Ringed planets seem to be a natural occurrence around distant stars. A Saturn-like planet has again been found orbiting a distant star. See the Space.com story, and for more detail see The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two. See also this NewScientist.com story.

  • New Observations Show that the Universe is More Ordered than Present Theories Allow. There is now strong evidence that the Universe is more orderily than the Big Bang could have produced, even with the exotic, dark matter hypothesis. This was put forth in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos in Tome Five which was published more than a half year prior to this finding. See the Cosmiverse news story.

  • Dark Matter was Not Found Where it Theoretically "Should" Be. Dark matter was thought to exist near the cores of galaxies, but there's very little, if any. This problem with dark matter is discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos in Tome Five. See the Astronomy.com Story

  • Intergalactic field system is referred to as "Rivers of Gravity." The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed a strutural arrangement that connects galaxies with each other. This structural arrangement is noted in other phenomena, and is discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos in Tome Five. See the Cosmiverse story.

  • Most Galaxies Do Not Have Supermassive Black Holes. Contrary to popular opinion in astronomy that most or even all galaxies have black holes, instead few, if any, have supermassive black holes. This is also discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos in Tome Five. See the Space.com Story.

  • Widely Held Theory on Dark Matter Brought into Question. There is now evidence that only 20% to 30% of the cosmos is composed of dark matter, which is not enough to make the Universe flat. See the NewScientist.com story.

  • Microwave studies reveal guided galaxy formation and "inflation" (i.e., growth). Again, the knee-jerk reaction of scientists is to suppose that it is matter, mass and gravity that explains everything, but the truth is there is a system of fields guiding matter in the formation of galaxies. Also, there is a tendency to use non-biological terms, such as inflation, rather than growth. Notwithstanding, the evidence can be interpreted differently, see the full Science Daily story. As a case in point, see the next two news stories.

  • A Giant Intergalactic Cobweb Exists. This is what NASA is calling a vast array of cosmic helium clouds that fill the void between galaxies. The discoveries where made after analyses from the Hubble Telescope and the spacecraft FUSE. As written in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two there is evdience, now this included, that there is a system of intergalactic fields, guiding galaxy formation. See the full NASA news story.

  • Galaxy survey brings into question dark matter hypothesis. The amount of the so-called dark matter to gravitationally contain the universe comes up short. The survey shows that there is only about one-third of the matter and energy required to keep the universe flat. Since dark matter cannot keep the universe flat, than an additional force must be present. See the Los Alamos National Laboratory report. In The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two evidence is provided that there are intergalactic fields that provide the extra force.

  • More doubts about black holes. The standard theory that active galactic nuclei are powered by central balck holes is again in question. See the news release.

  • Old debate about galaxies is renewed as a result of a new study. The more-evolved spiral galaxies, known as Seyfert 2 galaxies, have much less active central black holes. Black holes are thought to drive galaxy formation, so a change in the activity for the central balck holes has big implications on the present theoretical perspectives of galactic structure and activity. This finding supports the model of galaxies presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two, where the central black hole is a time-varying thermonuclear core, not the proposed super-massive black hole. In this scenario, the central black hole changes with time and evolution. For the entire news see this Spaceflightnow.com story.

  • Some new planets may begin as stars. More than half of the recently discovered extrasolar planets appear to begin as star-like objects. While this study suggests to astronomers that these may actually be brown dwarf stars in binary systems, they could instead be how planets first form. This fits well with the theoretical perspectives presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volumes One and Two presented in part in The Need For a New Model of the Earth, and here on this web page The Similiarites of the Planets (and Other Celestial Objects) that the planets have sun-like, thermonuclear cores. See the full news story about a study presented at the Division for Planetary Sciences of the American Astronomical Society meeting of October 23-27 at Pasadena.





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