Keywords: Cycles, cyclic phenomena, geology, evolution, weather, climate, society, economy, geophysics, solar-terrestrial physics, lunar-terrestrial physics, war, civil unrest, circadian rhythms, biorhythms, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, climate, weather, disease, epidemics

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. This book is now published with the full scope and references, and is available for purchase. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.

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Throughout The Vital Vastness, and covering various topics, there are many phenomena that recur at regular intervals, known as cycles. They can take on the same cycle of days, months, years or longer time-frames. Many of these cycles are the result of life's interaction with the Earth, referred to as the Field-dynamical Earth Model (abbreviated FEM), as well as, the interaction of the Earth with the Sun and Moon. These cycles reveal the unity of the Earth, life, the Sun and the Moon. Here are some excerpts and a discussion.

Cycles in Natural Phenomena

Certain phenomena recur at regular intervals, often referred to as cycles. There are solar and lunar cycles in weather, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Other phenomena also show cycles that match lunar and solar cycles in biological, physical and socioeconomic phenomena. These studies reveal that there is a synchronicity shared by all of these phenomena so much that the solar-lunar linkage of FEM, including life, can be considered a single unit.

The lunar cycle and lunar phases are observable behaviorally and physiologically in numerous life forms. These effects occur in fish, shellfish, insects, mammals (including humans), and plants. For example, shellfish renew their shells, undergo regeneration and sexual activity in accord with the lunar tidal cycle. Guppy-fish have a color sensitivity on their back that is most responsive during Full Moon, and least responsive at New Moon. The Golden Hamster displays lunar rhythms in activity, and urinary volume and acidity. Lunar phases and plant growth are correlated for plants in the wilderness, as well as in the laboratory. In fact, two different lunar cycles affect all plant growth. Various life forms exhibit lunar periods in behavior and/or physiology. These lunar effects on life are components that sustain and partially control FEM's dynamics.

Solar cycles of various lengths are also evident in many life forms and their activities. Consider some examples. Alternative cycles of sunspots reverse with a period of four years. Also having a cycle of four years are plankton yields in Lake Michigan, and the abundance of Arctic Fox, Canadian Fox, salmon, Snowy Owls, field mice, and Ruffed Grouse, as well as various socioeconomic activities. A 5.9-year solar cycle is also manifested in Grouse abundance, and various socioeconomic activities. The 9.11-year solar cycle is found in the abundance of Lynx and the Woodcock, agricultural production, and various industrial activities. Grasshopper and partridge abundance, and tree-ring growth display a cycle similar to the 9.3-year sunspot cycle. At least twenty industrial activities also have a cycle of 9.3 years. The 9.93-year sunspot cycle is apparent in Lynx, Ruffed Grouse and Waxwing abundance. Cycles of diverse lengths are also evident in human activities and physiology, other life forms, and physical processes on the Earth. In addition, the correlation between solar cycles and cycles in the biosphere makes it clear that there is an underlying common cause, and it bears the evidence of a unified whole involving life integrated with FEM, and its solar and lunar linkages.

We often think that humans are immune to such influences, but the evidence indicates otherwise.

Human aggression, conspicuous in national and international wars, occurs in cycles, as well. A study of civil war from 600 BC to AD 1941, and international battles from 600 BC to AD 1943 revealed cycles of 6, 9.66, 11.25, 12.33, 17.75, 22, 53.5, 143 and 164 years. Cycles of 5.98, 9.73, 11.26, 13.2, 17.2, 21.9, 29, 52.9, 59.8, 101 and 143.7 years were noted in a more recent study. For example, the 29-year cycle peaked in 1913, which was the beginning of World War I, again in 1942, during World War II's most violent battles, and again during the escalation of the Vietnam War in 1971. The next peak is slated to be in the year 2000. Civil war also displays cycles, which are 130, 91, 62.9, 27.4, 18, 10 and 8.9 years.

The global political system shifts in cycles of 8.6, 17.4 and 34 years. Cycles in global economic transitions occur in cycles of 5.6, 9.4, 20.5 and 54 years, which often result from or contribute to human conflict. One of these studies took in the political and economic histories of 58 nations.

Instability in social change often occurs at the time the Sun's center, the center of mass and Jupiter are in alignment. Such are the times when solar, earthquake, volcanic and climatic transitions peak, as well. When considering all of the cycles mentioned in this section, they are at or close to the lengths of solar and geomagnetic cycles.

Solar activity, geomagnetic activity, and weather are correlated to changes in blood pressure, blood composition, and the physical and chemical state of humans. It is very possible that these factors play a significant role in triggering political, international and civil conflict (i.e., wars, riots, etc.). Changes in human behavior are know to take place during periods of high or low solar activity, as well as during geomagnetic storms (also see sections 2.1 and 2.3). Solar and lunar effects are known to influence civil unrest, which can be triggered by air ionization due to particle flow along the Field lines of FEM. The cycles of national and international conflict noted above are at or close to the lengths of solar and lunar cycles.

Cycles in the economy are probably the best known and researched due to attempts at predicting market trends (i.e., to make money). More than two decades ago the following industrial and economic cycles were recognized: seven 4-year, eight 5.9-year, thirty-five 6-year, twenty-three 8-year, twenty 9-year, five 9.4-year, three 9.9-year, eight 12.6-year, two 16.67-year, four 17.3-year, two 17.7-year, twelve 18.3-year, four 22-year, and thirty 54-year cycles. All of these cycles, with the exception of the 54-year cycle, were recently reaffirmed a quarter century later (i.e., 54 years had not elapsed since the first study).

Five long-term (secular) sunspot periods appear in all three measures of the economy. As with other evidence, this again reveals an Earthly influence on solar activity. Many of these cycles appear in data on solar activity, as well as in biological and geophysical phenomena.

Disease, epidemics, pandemics, and pestilence are also cyclic. It was early in the 20th Century that a relationship between solar activity, and the onset of epidemics and widespread diseases that widely effect many animals was first discovered. Also correlated were increases in nervous and mental diseases, and other biological and social phenomena. Correlations between disease and solar activity are particularly clear in data for the 19th and 20th Centuries, as the Modern Maximum in solar activity became effective, and more complete records were kept.

Throughout The Vital Vastness it is demonstrated that life contributes electric and magnetic forces, and materials that allow for electric conduction (e.g., biological superconductivity, chirowaveguides, organic conductors, etc.) that are part of the dynamics of FEM, including its solar linkage. One of the biggest surprises relating to cycles is discussed:

Looking more deeply into cycles it becomes even more evident that what we do here on Earth has effects that go beyond the Earth. Many major physical forces on Earth are interrelated with those of the Sun. Other cycles that coincide include variations in the GNP, stock prices, interest rates, periods of general instability, economic turning points, animal populations, climate, geomagnetic storms, earthquakes, volcanic activity, changes in the length of day, and others. Cycles would not normally cluster unless they were related by cause and effect, or by a common cause. The cause is the human destruction of life, which in turn weakens the Fields, resulting in terrestrial, then solar, and finally, solar-induced terrestrial effects.

This interrelationship has been observed in a number of ways. One of the earliest cycle researchers comments on this: "When cycles of seemingly the same length are found on both the Sun and the Earth, the solar waves crest after the Earthly ones." Putting that into a perspective of cause and effect, the conclusion would be that Earthly phenomena is the cause of the solar cycles.

This relationship is also apparent in the Gross National Product (GNP) and the Wholesale Price Index, both of which are a measure of the life destroyed in the manufacture of goods and the waste generated. A study compared these indexes over a time period from 1889 to 1978 with sunspot cycles, and disclosed the causal factor. In this article, "Sunspots and Cycles: A Test of Causation," the authors state: "In an attempt to identify the limitation of exogeneity testing, we gathered data on a 'classic' question in economics. Is there a causal relationship between sunspots and the business cycle? On the basis of the evidence, we... are forced to conclude that the U.S. economy has a significant impact on the Sun, but that sunspots have no influence on the economy. We were, of course, more than a little surprised to the find that the U.S. economy has any influence on the Sun. However, as [others have] said so well, one 'would have to be rather more pigheaded in order not to have the evidence change his views.' We agree that identifying the linkages constitutes an important topic of future research." [for a brief, partial discussion on this see the web page The Unity of the Sun, Earth and Moon].

The stock market similarly reflects the degree to which life is destroyed, and also displays a cycle. Sunspots have a cycle of 9.15 years, which is "exactly the length of the dominate cycle in the stock market." Furthermore, when other cycles around this same length are examined the majority of biological, industrial and economic cycles peak first, then solar, and finally, biological, social-unrest and geophysical cycles affected by the solar cycles.

Included in the last phase of these interrelationships is the cycle apparent in the International War Battles Index, and the 11-year solar cycle. That is, we humans begin to destroy the very industries and urban centers in war that were destroying life to begin with. Not only does war follow, but geophysical events, such as earthquakes, floods, droughts, and so on increase, which also eliminate life-destroying urban-industrial centers. These relationships are particularly true for the dominant 11-year solar cycle. [for a brief, partial discussion on this see the web page In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About]. Other observations confirm these interrelationships. Just as there are differences in the activity of plants and animals at night, as compared to day, there are differences in chemical reactions (Piccardi Tests) during the night and day. A worldwide force affects both organic and inorganic compounds (i.e., colloids). Definite correlations exist between chemical reaction rates (precipitation curves), and the curve of the daily relative sunspot number. None of the meteorological factors can be said to be responsible. Furthermore, there are differences in these reactions according to latitude that are in accord with the latitude phenomena of FEM. These chemical reactions reflect solar activity in precipitation rates with sunspots peaking after the reaction times. They are also correlated with geomagnetic storms, sudden cosmic-ray bombardments, solar flares, and have an annual peak, like solar activity, at the March (vernal) equinox. Moreover, these reactions are evident in living things, which are a major component of the functioning of FEM (particularly as a bioelectrostatic generator).

This chemical-reaction effect is also apparent in living things. All life on Earth, even the simplest creatures, such as bacteria, display behavioral and physiological changes four days prior to magnetic disturbances on Earth that are later caused by solar activity. In turn, alternating electromagnetic fields, like those that accompany geomagnetic storms, are biologically active, changing animals (systolic) rhythms, bioelectricity, and blood dynamics.

As the various discussions unfold, the interrelationships between life, the Earth, the Sun and the Moon become undeniable. For more on cycles also see The Unity of the Sun, Earth and Moon.

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Geologic and Evolutionary Cycles

Cycles (or regular episodes) also occur in geological history and evolution.

Cycles of events in the fossil and geological records are a new idea in the geosciences. Some, but not all, events have been correlated to steps in mass extinctions, and dramatic disturbances in the elements (stable isotopes), oceans and atmosphere. Mass extinctions, climate, polar reversals, sea level fluctuations, plate tectonic episodes, and volcanic eruptions also occur in cycles or episodes. Furthermore, such events often take place when cratering occurs, which may be cyclic, or at least, clustered around other events.

Such cycles vary in length and cause claim various scientists. The existence of these cycles has neither been fully proved nor disproved, but are very possible according to statistical analysis. However, those who deny the existence of these cycles must prove that they do not exist, because statistical analysis strongly suggests that they do exist.

Many proposals have been made to account for these cycles. One theory claims that they result from repeated impacts of comets or asteroids. The various suggested ways in which cycles of impacts could occur include a "death star" (Nemesis), which is claimed to be a solar companion whose orbit destabilizes comets that impact Earth. Yet, a solar companion seems impossible, because it would require a highly improbable orbit. Another theory claims that it is a presently unknown tenth planet that causes comets to be dislodged from their orbit (Oort Cloud). However, this would require either an extremely large planet or a drastically eccentric orbit far from the rest of the Solar System. Other hypotheses state that as the Earth moves through the galaxy it passes through interstellar clouds, which then perturb comets, or cause cosmic ray intensities to increase leading to mass extinctions. Meanwhile, a group of astronomers insist that comet showers are not produced with sufficient frequency nor intensity by known bodies, whether molecular clouds or stars, to account for cycles in mass extinctions. No known extraterrestrial mechanism can account for these theories or the cause of the cycles.

One of the first to present the idea of cycles with enough statistical accuracy to make most scientists take notice, utters a comment that reflects his training as a scientist: "I'm entirely stuck for a mechanism for causing such a period, but I suspect that the forcing agent would not be earthbound." Scientists have been trained to think of everything in terms of matter, mass and gravity, especially with regard to cycles. Therefore, they look for some object(s) affecting the Earth, not realizing it is the Earth itself in a much more dynamic state than hypothesized.

Another scientist reviewing the problems of astronomical theories with respect to the evidence concludes: "Rejection of the extraterrestrial option leaves us, of course, with the problem of putting forward a geologically plausible ultimate." The dynamics of FEM are that geologic ultimate.

Likewise, a group of scientists reviewing cycles in mass extinctions, volcanic activity, polar reversals, sea level shifts and climate make the type of comment that implicates FEM: "We have argued that the correlations are due to an internal, rather than external, cause." The existence of cycles does imply a single ultimate cause. The single ultimate cause is FEM and its solar linkage.

All conventional theories presented cannot explain cycles of polar wander or reversals, which occur around the times of mass extinctions, climate changes, iridium (or tektite) deposits, cratering, plate tectonic episodes, volcanic eruptions, and sea level shifts. These often occur together in the same geologic event, such as the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, the time of the dinosaurs' extinction.

The Vital Vastness reveals how FEM is involved. Here are a few excerpts:

However, reversals occur before other changes, which brings the inevitable conclusion: "This would, in fact, indicate an internal, rather than external, event that has subsequent effects on the Earth's surface." Such a correlation completely discredits the idea that an object(s) impacted the Earth and caused the reversal.

Those times of proposed impacts often show no evidence of a reversal, or they occur prior to the deposition of iridium, which is claimed to originate from the impact. A reversal is not capable of itself to cause mass extinctions, because it increases radiation by only a few percent. In addition, sea core isotope analysis indicates greater amounts of radiation than could be caused by a reversal. Examples exist, such as at the end of the Cretaceous, when events take place both before and after a reversal. Therefore, it is impossible for all of the effects to be due to magnetic reversals or impacts alone.

Major events resulting from plate tectonics also occur in cycles. Volcanic eruptions from deep within the Earth (mantle plumes), and mineral deposits occur within the same time frame. Also following the same patterns is the solidification of molten rock (magma) deep within the Earth, and its crystallization (plutonism). Accompanying all of these phenomena are sea level and evolutionary changes, as well as temperature minimums, possibly leading to glaciers and glacial advance.

All of these statements are supported by various discussions on a variety of related topics in The Vital Vastness, which is supported by a myriad of empirical evidence.

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