Keywords: Field-dynamical Earth Model, geophysics, dynamo theory, terrestrial electricity, geophysical anomalies, polar reversals, polar wander, polar jerks, solar neutrinos, Gaia theory, deep ecology, life and the Earth, latitudes and phenomena, anomalies
As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. Because this book is published the full scope and references could not be presented. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. The plates that are mentioned in the excerpts are not included, but maybe included at a later time. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.
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Most geologists and geophysicists will not admit that the presently accepted model of the Earth is inadequate for explaining many observations. This model portrays the Earth as a multiple layered sphere (actually a rounded tetrahedron) with an iron-nickel core. The core is envisioned as a molten core whose convection generates the Earth's magnetic field by dynamo processes. An immediately apparent shortcoming is that dynamo processes only reinforce existing fields and do not provide for the outright generation of a magnetic field. So where did the original field come from? Exactly what generates the geomagnetic field? The evidence indicates the need for a new model of the Earth.
The Need for a New Model of the Earth
There are a number of observations and phenomena that cast considerable doubt on the present model of the Earth. These topics include the following:
Some of these topics will be addressed below, though not in their entirety, while others and the full scope can be found in The Vital Vastness -- Volumes One and Two.
The Living Earth
In mostly the last two decades, scientists have taken a new look at the Earth, and seen a link between all life on Earth (the biosphere), and the Earth as a planet. Referred to as the Gaia Hypothesis, the biosphere is envisioned as an integrated whole, a super-organism, that not only evolved with the Earth, but also changed the geological environment to suit life. It is not that the Earth as a planet changed and life adapted to the Earth, but life changed the Earth in order to make it more suitable for life. Gaia was used because it is the ancient Greek name for the living Earth Mother. A new term surfaced in this conceptual transition, called geophysiology.
The Gaia Hypothesis was originated by Dr. James Lovelock after being commissioned by NASA to devise a way to uncover whether life existed on Mars. His simple, but eloquent, solution was to observe the composition of the atmosphere, since life would alter the atmosphere in a way that would not occur if there was no life. This lead him to other observations that the biosphere behaved as a single living entity, the living mother Earth, Gaia. (Use the high-lighted links for other discussions on the topic).
Supporting and accentuating the Gaia Hypothesis is the Endosymbiotic Theory. The Endosymbiotic Theory basically states that the components of the cell (i.e., the organelles) are actually primitive organisms (e.g., bacteria) that formed mutual (symbiotic) relationships that made up a larger organism. Dr. Lynn Margulis originated this theory, and she supports the Gaia Hypothesis as an even larger symbiosis of all life on Earth. As she would put it, the biosphere is a super organismic system.
The Vital Vastness sanctions both of these theories, and goes a few steps further. In this book the Earth's biosphere is not only a single, living entity, but the biosphere also helps to regulate the Earth's electric and magnetic environment. While the biosphere inhabits the upper, surface layer of the Earth, its influences go deep within the Earth by contributing to the Earth's magnetic field and regulating the dynamics of the planet on a large scale. It is in this larger and deeper scale that the biosphere and the Earth, as a living planet, are an integrated whole.
Moreover, the different types of organisms in a habitat are analogous to the components of the cell. In The Vital Vastness -- Volume One: Our Living Earth it is introduced in this way in Tome One:
A cell is one of the fundamental structural units of which all living things are composed. Likewise, the habitat is one of the fundamental structural units of the Earth's life zone, the biosphere. Microscopic units which maintain a cell's life functions are comparable to the interrelationships of life and the environment within the habitat. For this reason, habitats can be understood as a likeness or analog of the cells of what we normally call life. Could these analogues of enormous cells constitute one of the outer layers of an enormous organism? This analogy may seem somewhat tenuous to some, but the remainder of this book confirms that this analogy is real.
Biologists studying the cell have observed a number of parts called organelles, performing the different life-sustaining activities of the unit. In fact, organelles are now being understood as bacteria and algae that evolved to be incorporated into the cell. They are populations composed of vestiges of organisms that interact within the boundaries of the cell membrane. From single-celled organisms to complex organisms, plants and animals are communities of smaller organisms (as stated in the Endosymbiotic Theory).
Few have seen that the interrelationships between organelles in the cell reflect the interrelationships of plants, animals, and the environment. Perhaps the reason is because most scientists are specialists in a given field, or because none wants to venture a theory based on an analogy, possibly losing the respect of colleagues. Still, one of the first and continuing methods of distinguishing new life forms is through analogy.
The Vital Vastness goes on to describe how the components of the habitat reflect the functions of the cell's organelles. The mitochondria liberates energy for the cell, transports water and ions, produces phosphates and so forth, as does soil (and mineralized waters) for the habitat. The endoplasmic reticulum utilizes ions and phosphates, produces carbohydrates and protein, brings energy to the cell, and eliminates waste, as do plants (also photosynthetic and thermosynthetic bacteria) for the habitat. In contact with the protein synthesis of the endoplasmic reticulum is the golgi apparatus, which produces more complex proteins and other compounds, as do primary consumers who eat plants. Produced from the proteins and carbohydrates of the golgi apparatus are lysosomes, which attack disease organisms and scavenge cell material that is no longer useful and makes it useful again. Predators (secondary consumers) attack diseased and weak animals, and scavengers (and decomposers) consume what is no longer useful to the habitat, and again make it useful. The nucleus regulates cell metabolism, growth and reproduction, and within its chromosomal memory is the information to replace cell components and for creating new cells. Humankind is the nucleus of the habitat, as humans we are capable of replacing members of the habitat, and can create whole new habitats. As the book uncovers, humans have not fully accepted this exalted position, and have even destroyed the components of the cell (like cancer), and this has repeatedly caused devastating results for humankind throughout human history [see the web page In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About].
When we look at the oceans, and rivers and their tributaries, they look and behave very much like a huge circulatory system. The Vital Vastness discusses the complimentary functions between the hydrosphere and a circulatory system. Also sea water is very much like blood, as stated in this excerpt:
Blood and ocean water have much in common. Both are liquids with dissolved minerals (electrolyte solutions), which make them excellent for electrical activity and chemical reaction. They share the same major positively charged particles (cations), which are sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Dissolved gases in both are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Blood plasma -- blood minus the red and white cells -- has a specific gravity of 1.026 compared to sea water's 1.03, minus the ocean life. This shows they both have a similar capacity for holding solids suspended in solution. An animal's body and the biosphere's largest single constituent is water. Water absorbs excess heat without much temperature change, and therefore, helps to maintain an ideal temperature (high specific heat). Average pH, which designates acidity, is not all that different, either. The average pH of blood is 7.4 (7.35-7.45), and that of sea water is 7.6 (7.0-8.2). Both are ideal for the maintenance of life, and anyone who doubts this need only observe any one-celled creature in the sea whose blood supply is literally the ocean.
Another organism-like quality of the Earth is the homeostatic mechanisms that must be regulating ocean salinity, temperature, and more. It is an idea that is supported by the Gaia Hypothesis. This quote from The Vital Vastness describes the nature of homeostasis:
Homeostasis is a word used primarily to describe equilibrium within an organism. It constitutes the regulation and adjustment of vital functions that maintain a steady state of the blood, tissues and body functions. The objective of this regulation is to sustain internal constancy. Through higher levels of control, a dynamic equilibrium is achieved independent of the fluctuating environment. This control takes the form of reactions to compensate for imbalance, and mechanisms that maintain checks and balances. With the exception that this type of process exists in some man-made mechanical regulatory devices (which are made by life), whose operation is rigid and not so self-sustained as biological types (which are more flexible and adaptable), it is found nowhere else, but in living things.
One such example of homeostasis on the Earth is afforded by the salinity of ocean water. The runoff of salts from the continents into the oceans is about 540 megatons per year, yet the average salinity has remained at 3.4%. If this were to be explained in terms of chemical equilibrium then the oceans would be only 60 million years old, in contrast to the proposed 3.5 billion years old of the earliest fossils. If the oceans are 3.5 billion years old, and chemical equilibrium were the only regulating mechanism, then the figures would be 63% water, 35% salt and 1.7% sodium nitrate. However, the figures are 96%, 3.4%, and a trace, respectively. There must be a homeostatic mechanism that regulates ocean salinity by and for life, as no living thing can survive in water with more than 6% salt or it would literally fall to pieces. This constant level of salinity has been and remains the biggest mystery in chemical oceanography.
Another observation that requires a homeostatic mechanism is the constant temperature of the Earth. The surface temperature has never varied by more than a few degrees. Yet, according to the typical history of a star, the output of the Sun would have been 30% less in its early stages, causing the Earth's climate to be in a frozen state. However, fossils and life's persistence show that this never happened. Life on Earth must have somehow sensed this fluctuation by regulating the levels of Greenhouse gases (e.g., methane, carbon dioxide, etc.), and as a result, the surface temperature of the Earth.
There are a number of other homeostatic mechanisms regulating a variety of conditions on Earth that are maintained by and for life as a whole, which are discussed in The Vital Vastness.
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A Huge Nervous System
The Earth also has something like a huge nervous system. The Vital Vastness -- Volume One: Our Living Earth introduces the topic like this:
All living things have a nervous system. Various complexities in nervous systems exist, ranging from the simplest forms in single-celled plants to highly complex ones in mammals, such as humans, dolphins, and whales. The web of life on Earth both creates and is affected by electrical currents on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere. Termed telluric currents, geoelectricity and terrestrial electricity, many things contribute to this overall network. For the sake of simplifying the terminology these will be referred to as earth-currents in the following discussion.
The soil with its electrically conducting gases, metals, semiconducting mineral crystals, water-soaked organic matter, and electrolytes offers a good medium for maintaining and producing electrical currents. Water transports and renews these components and is an excellent electrical conductor itself. Pores, spaces, and other voids in the main surface rocks of the Earth (sedimentary, and fractured crystalline and metamorphic rocks) contain relatively large amounts of water, making them moderately good conductors of electricity. Radioactive decay of elements and radioactive gases in the air and soil produce charged particles (ions). Moving water and breaking water-films, such as waterfalls, rain and breaking waves, also produce charges. Studies conducted on sea water disclose the fact that the entire ocean has a high-frequency conductivity. These charges are emitted into the ground and water, or within the first few meters (several feet) of the atmosphere. Furthermore, the earth-currents are greatly increased by electrically grounded tall objects, such as vegetation and animals. Thereby, the charged particles (ions) are draw to the ground (planetary boundary layer) and high concentrations (10 ion pairs cm-3 sec-1) increase the intensity of earth-currents (electrode effect). As a result, static electricity flows parallel with the ground (orthogonal quasi-static electric field). These and other influences create a pathway for generating electricity, which travels to and along surface layers of the Earth. All things considered, the Earth's surface is a good conductor, and as a result, charges are observed to be distributed worldwide in only a short time.
The discussions and observations reveal that life generates an electrical current on the Earth. Just as walking across a carpet and touching a metal object, such as a door knob, generates an electric shock, plants and animals generate static electricity. Also contributing to this electrostatic current are a number of other factors, such as chemical activity in the soil, decaying metals and organic matter, and so forth. These electric currents form a worldwide system of electrical eddies that center along the 30o to 40o latitudes, and both poles (four eddies surround each pole). The Vital Vastness uncovers this union of life and electrical currents, and this quote reveals only some of the discussion:
Observations of these electric currents have revealed some very interesting results. Plant life needs light to function, and its fundamental importance in generating electricity is noted by currents of greater strength on the daytime side of the Earth. Contributing to this daytime effect is the fact that there is more daytime animal life, producing a greater supply of electricity for the system than does nocturnal life. Also important in this regard is the photoelectric effect, which is basically (electromagnetic) radiation, mostly from the Sun, striking rock and releasing subatomic particles, thereby producing an electric current. This same process is at work in the solar energy device known as the photovoltaic cell. These currents are fixed in relation to the Sun, shift with season, vary with sunspot number, and display a daily lunar variation.
Frequently the geomagnetic field is altered by changes in these currents, and these currents fluctuate inversely with changes in the magnetic field, demonstrating a definite mutual relationship. Though we often claim that the Earth's magnetic field affects the earth-currents, which in turn affect life, it is also the reverse. All observations show the mutually reinforcing nature of life, the electric flow and the geomagnetic field (GMF); this will be demonstrated further as this book unfolds.
Moreover, the biosphere is much larger than originally thought, and this has further effects on the global nervous (electric) system:
More recently, exploration of the ocean floor and deep within the Earth's surface has revealed more of the unforeseen. Bacteria were located 500 meters (1,640 feet) below the ocean floor itself. It seems that the bacteria feed on organic matter in the sediments. Moreover, drilling at a location west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Leg 82), where there is no sunlight and extreme pressure, uncovered microbes deep beneath the ocean floor where they live in and on volcanic glass, and may even "eat" the glass. Likewise, a borehole in Virginia, about three kilometers deep (2 miles), revealed that bacteria were everywhere. Moreover, the deepest drill hole on Earth, the 12-kilometer (7.5-mile) deep hole in the Kola Peninsula (the northeast section of Siberia), also uncovered bacteria. The KTB hole (to be discussed in a later section) penetrated to a depth of 7.5 kilometers (4.7 miles) and found fluids at nearly all depths, which might be utilized by bacteria. Another bore hole drilled to the 6.8-kilometer (4.2-mile) depth in the Siljan Ring, Sweden yielded micrometer-sized grains of magnetite of bacterial origin. These discoveries make the biosphere, along with its electrical characteristics, much larger than originally thought.
The discussion continues and also reveals that life responds to these electric currents, as well as generates them. Superconductivity, a term used to describe material with little or no electric resistence, is involved in this sensitivity. Moreover, life orients itself to the Earth's magnetic field.
Superconductivity is also evident in plant and animal life's orientation to the geomagnetic field (GMF). As previously stated, the electric currents and the magnetic field fluctuate in unison so well that they may be considered a single unit. In addition, life and the environment fluctuate with it as well. Animals under natural conditions select compass directions along these electric currents during migration. Plant roots' and tubers' growth also orient along compass direction. Even flower symmetry, leaf rotation, and germination are oriented.
Birds migrate along GMF lines, obtaining direction and position as if they possessed a map of the magnetic field. Responding to changes in the field's direction, they are thrown off course during magnetic storms when the field changes direction. During an eclipse, birds are known to become totally disoriented, because the field strength becomes imperceptible at that time. Within their physiology are magnetic minerals, such as magnetite, which aid in this ability to orient fight in relation to the GMF.
All life on Earth is oriented to the main magnetic field, just as an organism's cells are oriented to the central nervous system (which also has a strong magnetic field):
The entire biosphere, from molecules both biological and inorganic to entire organisms including humans, fish, insects, plants and other life-forms, is oriented to the Earth's magnetic field. This is no accidental arrangement. Organisms have their entire physiology oriented to their central nervous system. It seems the Earth is no exception. This is especially apparent in the fact that all living things, including humans, react three to four days prior to changes in the magnetic field. It is also apparent in the fact that the Earth's magnetic field became strong and consolidated at the same time that a life system became well established (Cambrian). An actual physical connection exists between the magnetic field, these electric currents and life on the Earth (GMF-telluric-superconducting- electrostatic interrelationships).
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The Earth's Interior
Present models of the Earth leave much to be desired and are, in fact, seriously flawed. Many of the facts recently uncovered, as well as the scientists commenting on inadequate Earth models, have simply been ignored. For example, the dynamo theory is claimed to generate the Earth's magnetic field, but dynamos do not allow for the outright creation of a magnetic field. What dynamos do is reinforce existing fields. So where did the original field come from? A look at recent observations and the deficiencies of present models of the Earth's interior reveals the need for new theories.
The most basic understanding of the interior has been extrapolated from observations of earthquake waves. Both "P" (primary; push-pull) and "S" (secondary; shake) earthquake waves change speed and direction when encountering different materials or divisions in the Earth's interior. From the information garnered by the study of these waves the Earth is seen as having three main divisions, further subdivisions, and what are referred to as discontinuities. But much of what has been learned by these studies has been interpreted in a biased manner, and this is especially evident in the fact that some observations have been ignored.
In The Vital Vastness the discussions uncover some of what has been ignored and overlooked:
According to the study of earthquake waves, the Earth can be depicted as an object with three major divisions: crust, mantle and core. The major divisions are understood to extend to certain depths, and to possess certain characteristics that distinguish their density. Shared by humans, other living things, and the oceans is the crust, which has been observed to be a solid descending to a depth of about 32 kilometers (approximately 20 miles). The mantle, next in descending order, extends to a depth of 2,900 kilometers (about 1,800 miles) and possesses the characteristics of a solid. Actually it is claimed to be molten, which is to say it is more or less liquid, but being contained by pressure it behaves like a solid.
A property of "S" waves is that they can only travel through solids, and the final division, the core, does not transmit "S" waves. For this reason, the core offers a special problem to the seismologist and geophysicist. Most geophysicists presently insist that the core is liquid with a solid inner core, while others have proposed that it might very well be composed of undifferentiated solar matter. The concept of a core consisting of undifferentiated solar matter is closer to the truth, despite the fact that most seismologists and geophysicists are rather skeptical about the idea, and have argued against it. The only seemingly credible argument against a core of solar matter (rich in hydrogen) is from the standpoint of chemical thermodynamics, which states that an important intermediate stage in the cooling of the Earth during its cosmological birth caused silicon (Si) and hydrogen (H) to combine into silicate rocks (SiH4). However, this is not a valid analysis, because they have not pondered the possibility of a renewable source of hydrogen -- solar matter (i.e., solar wind plasma) -- continually being involved in the chemical reactions.
In order to understand this a bit more in depth, it is necessary to look at the Earth's interior. The interior is not quite as simple as the three concentric layers discussed previously. Earthquake waves have indicated further (sub)divisions marked by areas the seismologist labels discontinuities. A discontinuity is an area where the chemical composition of main divisions, or layers within a division, changes composition (and bears the name of the scientist who convincingly presented evidence of its existence).
For example, the crust can be divided into two subdivisions, the upper and lower crust. Between these two is what has been called the Conrad Discontinuity, where the upper crust is made of one material (granite) and the lower crust is believed to be made of another (basalt or gabbro). The Conrad Discontinuity, however, is a combination of these chemical compositions (granite and basalt), and thereby, shares the properties of both. A discontinuity is referred to as such because chemical composition, density, and the speed of earthquake waves do not continue to be the same; that is, they are discontinuous.
However, some of this reasoning has been brought into question. The Conrad Discontinuity is generally between 7.5 and 8.6 kilometers (4.7 and 5.3 miles). According to present theory, one would expect to find a significant change in rock type when drilling through such a strong discontinuity. The granitic rocks of the continents should suddenly change to basalt. Yet, Soviet drilling below the Kola Peninsula found no such switch over. In fact, they had drilled to 12 kilometers (7.5 miles), more than three kilometers below the depth of where the discontinuity should have been. This brings into question what the Conrad Discontinuity, and in fact, what any discontinuity represents, and therefore, whether our models of the Earth's interior are realistic.
Notwithstanding, a true understanding of the Earth comes from the facts derived from these finer divisions. These subdivisions (discontinuities) are important in comprehending the interior, the magnetic field, and the process by which the hydrogen-rich core is maintained. Confirming the existence of a different core than hypothesized are recent observations that reveal earthquake waves travel faster north-south than east-west. Such observations disclose the presence of a magnetic field along the outer core that is as strong as a star's. Other geophysical phenomena confirm the existence of such a core (this will be discussed).
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The Dynamo Theory's Failure
The presently accepted theory of how the Earth generates its magnetic field is referred to as the dynamo theory. There is the immediate assumption that there is a liquid iron-nickel core in the Earth's interior. Then there are a number of hypothesized ways in which the core set in motion so that the magnetic energy can be drawn from the kinetic energy of the fluid motions. In addition, in this supposed state, the core is a good conductor of electricity, and coupled with these motions could generate a self-sustaining field. This is the current rationale on what drives the magnetic field.
However, this hypothesis is flawed in some very basic ways:
It has not been proven possible to demonstrate dynamo action in the laboratory using a sphere similar to the Earth's proposed core. In contrast to a sphere, engineering dynamos have a coil that has two directions of rotation (two fields) that are not equal (two unequal spirals), and bear the shape or symmetry of the face of a clock. This arrangement causes a current to flow in such a way that it generates a field (electric and magnetic) that reinforces the first field. A spherical shape, such as the core, does not possess these characteristics, because it is not in the shape of a disc or face of a clock, and it is unknown where the initial field reinforced by the dynamo came from, and whether there are two directions of motion.
Even some observations contrast those conditions that should exist if the dynamo theory were fact. During eclipses the geomagnetic field becomes sufficiently weakened to cause the disorientation of migrating birds. The gravitational forces operating at this time are not capable of causing the core's supposed dynamo action to slow to this extent. Furthermore, studies using a pendulum disclose that gravity changes during eclipses, revealing the existence of an unknown field (this will be discussed in later chapters).
Other observations also contradict the dynamo scenario. The inner core seems to be structurally unsuitable for dynamo action as well, as it is either a prolate sphere (its axis is about 100 kilometers or 62 miles longer pole to pole), or it has hexagonal symmetry. Moreover, the geomagnetic field is tilted about 11o from the rotational axis, which is, again, unsuitable for dynamo action. Drilling into the crust of the Earth reveals temperatures rise too quickly, and by extrapolation, the temperatures at only 100 kilometers (62 miles) would be too hot (beyond the Curie point of known materials) for magnetism to exist. As will be discussed in a later chapter, variations in the geomagnetic field (polar reversals, wandering and jerks) occur too rapidly, and show correlations with solar activity that cannot be accounted for by the solid, permanently magnetized materials proposed for the core. Also unresolved are the source of the initial magnetic field needed to start the self-excited dynamo, and the energy source that keeps it going. Moreover, as will be discussed in Tome Four, the tilt of other planets' magnetic fields (notably Uranus and Neptune) and the existence of magnetic fields where they were thought not to exist (Mercury) seriously challenges the dynamo theory.
See the web page on other celestial objects, which includes a discussion on these planets.
Increases in solar activity (i.e., solar flares, prominences, etc.) cause changes in the length of day, and make the magnetic field shift direction and intensity (i.e., geomagnetic storms). The solar wind does not have the physical properties to cause this if the dynamo of an iron-nickel core were producing the magnetic field. Moreover, earth-currents (i.e., telluric currents) are understood to have an influence upon the braking or acceleration of the Earth's rotation. In addition, electric currents and areas with unusual magnetic patterns, known as geomagnetic anomalies, on the Earth's surface are too persistent in strength and geographic location for this hypothesis (spherical harmonics vary too smoothly).
Other observations that are presented in this book also reveal other challenges to the dynamo theory. Such as polar reversals, which are not explainable by dynamo action, particularly the very rapid nature of some reversals. Also, polar wander can occur in such a rapid fashion that the pole can travel more than 110 kilometers (70 miles) in a single day. Light elements are now considered possible in the core (such as hydrogen). Methane is now seen to be coming from a primary source, the core. Moreover, the core may even be hotter than the Sun's surface. These and other observations are addressed in The Vital Vastness, and make the core quite different than what the proposed dynamo theory states.
The real unraveling of what produces the magnetic field lies in our observations of the auroras. Auroral activity is always associated with the Earth's magnetism. This association is due to the electrons present in the aurora (solar plasma), which in association with the Earth's electric currents, are accelerated into the Earth's interior generating a magnetic field. Such a relationship existed during the formation of the Earth from the spiraling planetary nebula that produced a dipole magnetic field, as well as mid-latitude fields. This is the result of the Coriolis and centrifugal forces in the plasma, and the pre-planet (protoplanetary) nebula's interaction with the Sun's Interplanetary Magnetic Field (i.e., due to the mechanical forces generated, as described in the Einstein Equivalence Principle). As the nebula condensed, it lead to the alignment of minerals due to their magnetic properties (this will be discussed more in the sections of Tome Four on Planetary and Protoplanetary nebulae and "Churning Up Creation" in the Conclusions).
Electrons rotating at an angle and with speed are equivalent to a current. Such a current will produce a magnetic field at right angles to its plane of rotation. Curtain-shaped auroras exhibit the best example of how this is accomplished. They are caused primarily by an intense sheet beam of energetic electrons that spiral down into the polar regions. This spiraling vortex (actually a helix of electrons and protons), shaped like a super-elongated funnel, produces the magnetic field as would the wire wrapped around an electric magnet or the antenna in a radio; only here there is no wire. Consequently, there would be no need for an iron-nickel core, complex fluid motions, or for that matter, a dynamo theory to explain the geomagnetic field.
The discussion continues on how the core structure developed during the formation of the Earth.
When one begins to interpret the information about the manifold phenomena affecting the Earth, it becomes evident that the most widely accepted theories about the interior are, at the least, inadequate. The terrestrial orb's interior is ideally suited for thermonuclear fusion. There maybe some, or even most, geophysicists who will resist this idea outright, but rejecting this understanding now must surely be labeled "hasty closure," for there is much supportive evidence, and science must remain an open-minded discipline. The major portion of this book lends supportive observations that make it so obvious we will wonder why it wasn't seen before.
Underlying it all is that there is a long overlooked reality about gravity's role in the formation of the Earth, particularly the core. Downward from the Earth's surface, primary differentiation with depth is accompanied by the progressive decline to zero of the force of gravity at the center of the Earth. Normal gravitational force, downwardly directed, is replaced by a reversed upwardly directed force at depths greater than 2,700 kilometers (1,678 miles), which would pull matter away from the core. This is especially true because the core is now known to be much hotter than previously thought.
This is why research involving deep mines and boreholes has shown different values for gravity with depth. In fact, a person deep within a mine weights less than that same person on a mountain top. Moreover, those scientists studying the phenomena have called for a new model of the Earth, but long-held theories are not easily dismissed. As a result, the phenomena has been virtually ignored.
Meanwhile, there is more to the story. During the protoplanetary stage there is more to reckon with than the force of gravity. According to the Einstein Equivalence Principle there are also the mechanical forces, which are put on an equal level with the gravitational force. The Earth, whether in the protoplanetary stage or at present, has a velocity gradient from zero at the core to progressively higher velocities as the surface is reached (particularly along the equatorial bulge).
Likewise, the centrifugal and Coriolis forces are also an aspect of the Earth's structural arrangement, and its earliest differentiation. There is a velocity gradient from near zero along the Earth's axis to progressively higher velocities as the equatorial bulge is reached. The equatorial bulge has always been perpendicular to the geomagnetic dipole, even during polar wander and reversal, and cannot be considered to be a hold over from an earlier, faster rotation. Furthermore, the Coriolis force is at zero in regions along the 30o to 40o latitudes, making the mechanical forces more active around these latitudes.
These mechanical forces are rarely, if ever, contemplated when theories of the Earth's formation and dynamics are envisioned. Yet, there is another factor to ponder. As is typical of solar system formation, the Sun formed into a star before any of the planets began to form. Furthermore, the Sun was and is sending waves of solar plasma along its Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), which would have hydrogen-plasma (magnetohydrodynamic) effects beginning with the protoplanetary nebula. This interrelationship can be seen even today in solar-terrestrial physics, and in the various solar cycles reflected in geological and meteorological cycles, including the auroras, weather, earthquakes, volcanics, the Chandler (polar) wobble, and polar jerks, wander and reversals, among other things (these will be discussed in Tome Five).
When all of these factors are considered, they force a more elaborate Earth model than can be deduced from gravity, geochemistry and chemical thermodynamics alone. For example, the centrifugal force would have aided in the formation of the Earth's dipole field. That is, according the tenets of ferromagnetism, molecular arrangement evolves symmetrically under the influence of an applied field; the centrifugal force and the IMF in combination. After all, the dynamo theory is seriously flawed if we merely consider the fact that dynamos only reinforce existing fields, and do not provide for the outright generation of a magnetic field.
This whole scenario leads to an Earth model that is quite different and more dynamic than the present model. The combination of forces pulled matter away from the core, and as a result, created a "chamber," for want of a better word, with very dense metals, such as iridium, producing a magnetic confinement chamber at the Gutenberg discontinuity (GD), at a depth of about 2,900 kilometers (1,802 miles). This depth is sufficient for the gravitational force to be primarily away from the core. Because the solar wind plasma and pulsating IMF are time-varying phenomena, the fields that developed became time-varying fields, ideal for accelerating hydrogen plasma into and away from the core. According to the Special Theory of Relativity, such fields should exist.
Another indication of a structure at the core-mantle boundary involves the extensive analysis of earthquake data. Both seismic tomography and the analysis of whole-Earth vibrations have revealed an unknown structure at the boundary. Both of these techniques are independent studies, yet they reveal the same understanding.
Furthermore, a core of hydrogen fusion would make sense of the aurora (hydrogen plasma) within the Earth's magnetic field lines, and the spiraling of electrons and protons into the polar regions. Polar-glow type auroras, with their separated electron- and proton-excited streams, are high in hydrogen plasma, an ideal fusion material. And the electron-excited portion is ideal for helping to maintain a magnetic field (and particle accelerator). The spiraling electrons would offer a perfect pathway for the protons to enter the Earth's core where pressure and magnetic confinement are quite sufficient to cause thermonuclear fusion. In fact, some present-day fusion reactors are in its likeness, though we have remained unaware of the fact.
One of the arguments opposing a core of hydrogen is that pressure is not sufficient to condense the core to the point where it would behave like a liquid, as earthquake waves indicate. This reasoning does not take into account the possibility of hydrogen, in the form of plasma, being contained by a magnetic field, which would cause the observed effects.
The Gutenberg discontinuity (GD) displays the characteristics of a magnetic confinement chamber. It is unlike other discontinuities which cause seismic waves to speed up slightly on their sojourn from one subdivision to another. Typically, earthquake waves never move faster than they do in the next inner division, but this discontinuity causes a drastic speed-up. Actually, the acceleration experienced makes it the most unique portion of the globe's interior (13.6 km/sec., or 8.45 mi./sec.). Even in the supposedly more dense and solid inner core the same wave is much slower (11.2-11.7 km./sec., or 7.0-7.25 mi./sec.).
According to the GD's position, it should exhibit the characteristics of the lower mantle and the outer core. That is, the GD should have a "P" wave velocity of somewhere between 8.2 kilometers or 5.1 miles per second (lower mantle), and 8.1 kilometers or 5.0 miles per second (outer core). Considering the velocity of primary waves on the order of 13.6 kilometers or 8.45 miles per second, the GD should be very dense material. It could easily be the only portion composed of an iron-nickel compound or possibly even more dense, such as iridium or gold. However, it is doubtless that the GD possesses the qualities for high electrical conductivity.
Furthermore, the electrons that produce the aurora eventually make contact with the GD and generate an intense magnetic field around the plasma. Coupled with pressure, a factor aiding fusion, which at this depth is 21.1 million tons per square centimeter (136.1 million tons/sq. in.), would make the hydrogen-rich plasma core yield characteristics that would cause the observed earthquake-wave behavior. This interpretation is especially evident when we consider the recent observations that earthquake waves travel faster north-south than east-west, which reveals a magnetic field the strength of a star slowing the east-west waves (see the section on plate tectonics in Tome Three for the discussion on this phenomena).
What is actually at the core is hydrogen plasma, confined by a magnetic field in a constant state of thermonuclear fusion. A sun-like structure exists in the core. The iron-nickel core theory has no plausible explanation for the observed primary wave behavior in the Gutenberg discontinuity (GD), nor the different north-south/east-west earthquake wave velocities.
As The Vital Vastness continues, it reveals the wealth of evidence that confirms this model of the Earth. Drilling programs revealed changes in gravity, density and temperature with depth that support this model. There is an imbalance (anomaly) with respect to helium-4 that means new helium-3 is being generated by nuclear reactions within the Earth. Methane is now known to be coming from the core (other than radiogenic outgassing). These are among the array of other observations in the book that support this new model.
The Dynamics Explorer, a space probe used to study the solar wind's interaction with the Earth and the mechanisms behind the formation of the aurora, also uncovered evidence that does not support the present model, but is expected of this new model. For example, a polar wind, a solar plasma-like wind, was coming up from the Earth, as would occur if there was a sun-like structure within the Earth. Hydrogen, helium and oxygen were among the ions observed. Totally unexpected, there were also nitrogen ions directly over the pole. This is something that has been observed with the Sun and the occasional occurrence of the combining of two helium ions. Helium and oxygen at high levels and nitrogen at any level are not common to our present understanding of the Earth, but would have been predicted with this new Earth model.
Another previously unknown aurora (Theta-arc configuration) frequently forms in the center of the oval where auroras commonly occur (aurora oval). Meanwhile, auroras are normally and theoretically supposed to be formed at the edge of the aurora oval where the magnetic lines of force are reacting with the solar plasma. It can develop on the edge of the oval, but it is rapidly centered over the pole. This, and an array of other evidence, supports the new model and is contrary to what would be expected of the presently accepted model of the Earth.
See an animated movie of the interaction of the solar wind (a coronal mass ejection) with the Earth's magnetosphere, and the formation of the aurora with this NASA animated movie.
For other pictures of the auroras there is the Aurora Australis, a South Pole aurora. For North Pole aurora there is the Aurora Borealis. For a discussion on the satellite used to study the aurora see this Dynamics Explorer website.
Being a system of fields, this new model is labeled the Field-dynamical Earth Model, abbreviated FEM. FEM brings to mind the Earth Mother that has permeated various cultures the world over throughout time. FEM has twelve fields, or considering the fact that they lie on exact opposite sides of the Earth, they might be considered six fields. That is, if one were to pass a rod into one field and through the other on the opposite side of the Earth, it would pass through the exact center of the Earth. This is likely the reason that it is now considered very possible that the core has hexagonal symmetry (a sex-sided spherical polygon) A myriad of phenomena are noted in these field areas, and much of the remainder of the book uncovers the vast array of phenomena that relates to these areas, though the subject matter is quite different and unique in each tome and chapter.
The Vital Vastness reviews these observations after discussing the evidence and providing maps of the various associated phenomena:
The Fields (time-varying particle accelerators), which are situated just above the bulge along the equator at about the 30o to 40o latitudes in both hemispheres and also the poles, are associated with other phenomena. Each forms a sinusoidal or S-shaped relationship to another Field. Each is on the exact opposite end of the Earth from another, so that if a rod were put in one and through the center of the Earth, it would come out in the middle of another Field. Terrestrial electricity spirals, strange sounds, and magnetic and gravity anomalies occur in each. The deepest parts of the ocean floor, ocean current patterns, strong storms deep on the ocean floor, some of the highest values of ocean surface salinity, and the most plentiful locations for bursting bubbles, producing stronger atmospheric charge are other associations. These same areas are high and low pressure systems in weather and storm centers. Spiraling gaseous nebulae have been observed from space centering in each Field. The Earth's surface layer (lithosphere) and the physical aspects of plate tectonics (subduction zones, plate boundaries, rises, rifts, stress patterns, earthquake-wave anomalies, etc.) are related to the Fields' locations. Lighted displays (ionized particles) and dark masses (neutrons) have been observed repeatedly. Patterns and changes in the upper atmosphere, radiation belts, and the magnetosphere show relationships to the Fields. Eels, iron-precipitating bacteria, and electric fishes are geographically located in these areas. More than 70 percent of all life on Earth is situated in relation to the Fields (between the 40o latitudes), which is ideal for the generation of electrical energy by life.
Later chapters show other phenomena is associated with the Field areas (see the review at the end of this page for some of these phenomena).
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Polar Reversals, Wandering, and Jerks
Another indication that the Earth is different than the currently proposed model is polar reversals. The Vital Vastness addresses this:
All excursions and reversals of the geomagnetic field are anomalous in the sense that they cannot be explained by the dynamo theory. It is not known how or why they are initiated. For example, if the reversal occurs too rapidly, then according to the dynamo theory there would have to be unrealistically rapid motions in the core. Generally speaking, polar excursions and reversals seriously challenge the dynamo theory, and they alone call for a new model of the Earth.
Polar reversals are being comprehended with more accuracy due to high-resolution studies of sediments and lavas. For one, reversals are very rapid, on the order of the same time scale as that of the polar jerks, such as that of the 1969 polar jerk. Some scientists studying reversals admit that this timescale is far too incompatible for conventional solid Earth theories proposed for the lifetime of interior convention patterns (mantle mixing and flux diffusion).
As with earthquake waves, which indicate very strong magnetic fields near the core, reversals demonstrate that, "Decay times of the order of a few years require implausibly large fields at the core-mantle boundary." There is no generally accepted theory of how the Earth generates its magnetic field, and what the reversal mechanism involves. Unquestionably, this is because the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM) is not know. Demonstrating life's contribution to FEM is the fact that the magnetic field became strong at the same time that life became well established (Cambrian).
Observations of the sedimentary and volcanic records demonstrate that there are "transitional fields" before reversals and "aborted" reversals. Sediments and lavas laid down during times of reversals or transitional fields leave behind directional changes of the geomagnetic field in the formation of crystals in these rocks. Due to the magnetic properties of minerals, these crystals form in the direction of the magnetic field at that time. By studying these rocks and their crystals, geologists are able to determine the reversal record.
The layered lava flows of Steens Mountain preserved a record of the geomagnetic field reversal. It takes about two weeks for a two-meter thick flow to solidify, and thereby, a record of the behavior of the geomagnetic field was established. The lava flow indicates that the field's axis was rotating 3o to 6o per day. That is incredibly fast according to present thinking, and is, in fact, several thousand times faster than theorized. According to these figures (confirmed by a number of studies), the reversal would take no more than months, but theories claim that they should take thousands of years. If the dynamo theory were at work, then the molten rock of the core would have to move at speeds of several kilometers per hour, an impossible scenario.
At Steens Mountain, Oregon there were two phases when the field shifted away from the typical north-south (axial) symmetry, when a "transitional field" between the 30o and 40o latitudes was recorded. The first phase was a complete flip from normal to reversed polarity, while the second phase was normal-transitional-normal, and did not undergo a reversal. Similar records of transitional fields are found at numerous sites in North America, Puerto Rico, Iceland, Japan, Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In addition, the sedimentary record also supports the volcanic evidence for a transitional field phase.
The transitional field is not dipolar, not north-south for example, but is instead a single pole. The Coriolis Force (most active around the 35o latitudes) is said to be involved in both the two phase and other long-term (secular) variations, such as the polar jerk. For example, a study of rocks from southwestern Puerto Rico indicated an ancient pole at about 39.4o North Latitude. This lead to the suggestion that the region had undergone a 40o to 45o anticlockwise rotation.
However, this is actually the activation of a mid-latitude Field that produced the magnetization observed in the rocks. Such transitions occur at a time when the main dipole or north-south magnetic field is about one-fifth or less of its typical strength. What these facts uncover is that the main dipole is weakened at the same time that a mid-latitude Field is activated, releasing hydrogen fusion by-products, and producing a non-dipole transitional field that is recorded in the sedimentary and volcanic rocks laid down at the time.
Other observations clearly support this interpretation. Reversals occur in two steps separated by an interval of relative inactivity in the dipole field. Recent theories have suggested that reversals have been caused by comet or meteor impacts, but the record indicates that this is not so. A study of the Ivory Coast tektites, for example, disclosed that the reversal occurred prior to the deposition of the tektites, which are thought to be of impact origin. Moreover, other times of proposed impacts are not clearly linked with a reversal (see related discussions in Tomes Three and Four).
Departures from the original (initial axial) dipole field to the transitional field shows the same geometry, and hence, a "memory." As could be predicted of FEM, "such a geometrical aspect may not always be associated with the core process." This stability has brought the idea of a "frozen-in-flux" into the theoretical picture. Such a concept as frozen-in-flux is just another way of describing the stability of Field position when scientists don't know of its existence. In terms of FEM, this demonstrates that the Fields prevent any great departure from the original geometry, as could be predicted from a geometric arrangement of a system of fields. This is also why the transitional field is not considered an "aborted" reversal.
Moreover, the paths taken by the reversing poles follow similar routes with each reversal. One preferred path is a band about 60o wide running north-south through the Americas. The other preferred path is 180o away with a band running through east Asia and just west of Australia. To think that the convection and mixing of a molten core could do this is shear hallucination.
Likewise, long-term changes in sea level and reversals are closely associated, and even synchronized. That is, ridge volume and seafloor creation are correlated with polar reversals. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic histories of reversals are not only accompanied by seafloor spreading, but also climate changes, black shales, tektites and geologic periods. This could be predicted of FEM with the Fields controlling climate, tektite ejection, and the ridges and seafloor spreading, as well as reversals.
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Another indication that the Earth is unlike the currently proposed model are observations of solar neutrinos.
Recent observations show that the Sun is discharging only one-third of the expected number of neutrinos. This greater solar efficiency is in disagreement with the supposedly well-established theory of stellar evolution. Therefore, the Sun's mechanisms are not understood or the classical theory of neutrinos is wrong. Both possibilities are unattractive to conventional theorists. Admittedly, a scientist relates: "Something else in the Sun has to be efficiently transferring energy out of the center." This greater efficiency is also suggested by the long-term (secular) variability of solar activity. Then again, as indicated by scientists, this could be due to the fact that the Earth has an energy source deep within its interior, as noted with FEM.
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Illustrations of Physical Observations
The following illustrations are presented in The Vital Vastness and demonstrate that there is evidence of a more structured Earth than is generally accepted. That structure is called the Field-dynamical Earth Model, a system of unified fields. The problem with present-day theories regarding the Earth is that they do not include the effects of the mechanical forces in the planet's formation and other celestial objects. These examples demonstrate that there is more to the story than what the present-day gravitational theories alone would allow. Note how each illustration below shows phenomena that center around the same locations. These locations are where the Fields' stems of the Field-dynamical Earth Model are located; between the 30o and 40o latitudes. The North Polar Field and South Polar Field are not shown in these illustrations, but also show similar phenomena. Taken together these illustrations show continuity from high up in the atmosphere down to at least the core-mantle boundary.
Source: Volland, B. (1984) Atmospheric Electrodynamics. Physics and Chemistry in Space. Vol. 11. NY, Springer-Verlag.
Note: Here the currents are shifted slightly due to the Earth's rotation and solar-wind pressure.
Source: Lanzerotti, L.J., Gregori, G.P. (1986) Telluric Currents: The Natural Environment and Interactions with Man-Made Systems. pp.232-257 in
Earth's Electrical Environment. NRC Geophys. Study Comm. Washington, DC, National Academy of Sciences.
Source: Dziewonski, A.M. (1984) Mapping the Lower Mantle: Determination of Lateral Heterogeniety in P Velocity Up to Degree and Order 6. Journal of Geophysical Research 89B: 5929-5952.
Source: US Naval Oceanographic Office and British Geological Survey.
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There's Much More
There is much more that confirms that this new model of the Earth is a reality. This can even be confirmed by an examination of human history, and in the writings of our ancestors, who experienced certain events at particular times in history. Its effects are noted in Earth history as well. Other associations are tektite strewn fields, centers of origin and extinction (as noted in biogeography and paleobiogeography), positive ion winds (as noted in biometerology), deep ocean trenches (and the deepest parts of the world oceans), and a myriad of other phenomena.
The Fields of the Field-dynamical Earth Model are labeled according to their geographic locations. There is the North Atlantic Field that is off the southeast coast of the United States. The Field near Gibraltar, at the mouth of the Mediterranean, is referred to as the Mediterranean Field. The Persian Gulf Field is at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Off of southeastern Japan is the Japanese Field. Another is at about the 150o longitude and 30o latitude in the northern Pacific, which is referred to as the North Pacific Field. Off the coast of southern Brazil is the Brazilian Field. Between South African and Madagascar is the South African Field. On either side of Australia are the East Australian Field and West Australian Fields. Between the 120o and 130o longitude, and the 30o and 40o latitude in the southern Pacific is the South Pacific Field. At the Poles are the North Polar Field and South Polar Field. The mid-latitude Fields are between the 30o and 40o latitudes, and are separated by 45o longitude bins. It is important to take note of these Fields, as they are often referred to in other web pages of The Living Cosmos web site.
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Richard Michael Pasichnyk
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