Evolution, Mass Extinctions, and Mass Speciations

Keywords: Evolution, mass extinction, speciation, molecular evolution, genetic mutation, ionizing radiation, geomagnetic field and evolution, paleobiogeography

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. This book is now published with the full scope and references, and is available for purchase. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.

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Evolution has never been fully understood. This can be seen even in the simple fact that there are now new sciences devised to try to uncover what has been taking place. These new sciences are called molecular evolution and molecular biology. The gene is the ultimate source of variability in living things, and it at this level that the answers to evolution can be uncovered. Few realize that there are not the series of graduated steps from one species to another, but rather the sudden appearance of new species. Moreover, mass extinctions are always followed by mass speciations. With the new model of the Earth the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM) there are new factors at work. This is addressed in The Vital Vastness.

Which Way to the New Creature?

For more than a century we have contemplated the origin and extinction of species within the framework of evolution. Darwin claimed that evolution was the result of natural selection, a term coined to describe what is also known as "survival of the fittest."

Meanwhile, nearly a century of genetic research has disclosed that the ultimate source of variability is at the genetic or chromosomal level. Mutation in the chromosome or its components (DNA, RNA, proteins, etc.) is the primary source of producing new species. Survival of the fittest merely plays a minor, at best, secondary role. Evolutionary transitions rely primarily on mutation at the molecular level, not with competition for a given niche in the changing environment, as has been hypothesized. Evidence proves that it is mutants which are fit to survive that lead to new species.

Hereditary information is carried in DNA within the chromosomes of a cell's nucleus. Chromosomes are known to have increased lengthwise as evolution progressed from the simplest to the more complex organisms (prokaryotes to eukaryotes). The simplest mechanism for accomplishing this lengthening involves the rearrangement of preexisting identical, small DNA sequences into longer groups.

The most important characteristic of the DNA segment forming the gene is its position within the structural unit, which defines its function. Mutation or other transformations (base substitution, transposition, rearrangement, etc.) can cause small or widespread physical (morphological) changes in an organism. In fact, modifications in DNA can be utilized to demonstrate a species relatedness to other species when similar patterns are observed. "Molecular clock" is a term used to express the periodic or episodic changes that have occurred in many different species simultaneously throughout time. One level at which the molecular clock is manifested is in the sequences of DNA.

RNA reads the genetic code of DNA which cranks out the protein that make up the developing organism. The evolution of RNA played a very important role in the earliest history of life. For one, genetic variation can be introduced as the result of mutation and RNA makes the mutation workable (RNA-catalyzed recombination). Protein synthesis involves coding information from DNA, but this requires three types of RNA (i.e., messenger, transfer and ribosomal). Interrelated checks and balances between DNA, RNA and protein determine what direction a given mutation will take in an organism.

One of the major evolutionary controls is that a given protein only recognizes a given type of DNA or RNA, and thereby, contributes to determining the type of hereditary information present. A protein's recognition of DNA directs the frequency and type of mutation. Studies of the molecular clock reveal episodes in protein evolution that occur at a nearly constant rate throughout various types of organisms (i.e., lineages).

When we combine all of the components mentioned above and include genes, we then have the structures known as chromosomes. A vast arsenal of remarkable molecular devices endow the chromosome with properties that ensure its own survival. The chromosome can bypass any assault on its integrity by repairing, reconstructing, substituting, improving and innovating its own molecular environment. Chromosomes can dispose of whole regions, whole chromosomes or sets of chromosomes. Genes function according to their position in the chromosome. The very same gene sequence in a different location on the chromosome can alter the gene's action, leading genetic pathways into new functional alleys, and hence, new creatures.

When genes are broken into pieces the reordering can facilitate evolutionary transformation. The splicing of gene pieces does not have to be 100% effective, because molecular devices in the chromosome repair it, making the altered chromosome functional. The genes of higher organisms (eukaryotes), such a mammals, are not continuous but broken into coded sequences (exons) and non-coded sequences (introns). Evolution can then be described as the "shuffling" of these coded sequences into new positions, which produces new species. Because chromosomes have built-in "rules of conduct" that escape natural selection, natural selection is an explanation made in the face of our ignorance about these molecular mechanisms. The understanding that molecular mechanisms, not natural selection, are responsible for evolution will be clarified subsequently and is now generally accepted by scientists.

Recent research has uncovered the molecular mechanisms accountable for evolutionary transmutations, but not how they took place throughout the history of life. The position of genetic information within the chromosome effects the order (including polarity), structure and function of genetic information, leading to transformations at all levels (i.e., organism phenotype, chromosome phenotype, RNA transcription, and DNA replication). Distinctions are made between the two strands of a DNA duplex and different, but similar, (homologous) chromosomes. The same is true of different DNA within the same cell, DNA segments, chromosomes, segments of the same chromosome, and sets of chromosomes. Gene expressions, mutations and rearrangements occur as the result of the controlling elements within the chromosome (also episomes and transposons).

Rearrangements of the chromosome, and changing coded and non-coded sequences (exon shuffling) can cause sudden evolutionary transition. Examining a great variety of protein from different back-boned animals (vertebrates) disclosed that shuffling is a major determinate in evolutionary transitions. There are episodes in evolution when DNA underwent bursts of substitutions followed by long periods of no substitution. The major unanswered question is what caused the episodes of shuffling to take place.

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Ionizing Radiation and Evolution

The reason that this question is unresolved is that the new model of the Earth, the Field-dynamical Earth Model or FEM, is not yet known. The Fields are particle accelerators which routinely produce X-rays and gamma-rays. Hydrogen fusion by-products include neutrons, helium nuclei or alpha particles, and high-energy protons and electrons. Collectively, x-rays, gamma-rays and fusion by-products are referred to as ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation in turn ionizes the atmosphere producing electrostatic fields, microwaves, hydrocarbons, and changes the acidity of precipitation. Furthermore, during such times the geomagnetic field experiences reduced strength, and drifts to new locations or reverses (i.e. polar wandering and reversals). As will be discussed, the process of evolution involves mutation caused by ionizing radiation, electrostatic fields, magnetic fluctuations, microwaves, alkalinity, and hydrocarbons (in the order of their greatest effect).

Ionizing radiation, in the form of x-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons, is the most effective mutagen, as has been seen by its effects on DNA. Damage to DNA is physical, chemical, and biological, leading to modifications in genetic information. Amino acid (purine and pyrimidine) bases are stacked in a parallel fashion in the core of the double spiral or helix of the DNA (see Figure 3). One of these amino acids (pyrimidine) is more sensitive to radiation damage, leading to DNA breakage or degradation. Often one or both strands of the DNA helix break leading to cross-links between DNA molecules, chemically active sites (ring openings in purine types), or liberation of a base (N-glycoside bond breakage). Double strand breaks can cause the loss of the original genetic information more than single strand breaks. Slippage during DNA replication occurs when the strands "mis-pair" in relation to their original coding. Also, randomly produced unstable chemicals, known as free radicals, in DNA can undergo a series of reactions ending in a stable radiation product with stable damage centers that confer new genetic expression.

DNA can be directly or indirectly affected by ionizing radiation, causing strand (polynucleotide) breaks and cross-links, transposing the sequence of genetic information. Induced currents can greatly increase the charge separation in molecules, producing DNA that is more reactive. Fast electrons captured by DNA, for example, can alter base functions, producing stable chemically active substances (radicals). The electrical or electrostatic potential of the DNA helix is large and attracts chemically active substances (counterions) effectively.

The genetic effects of ionizing radiation in offspring are due to DNA transformations in the reproductive cells of the irradiated parent. This transformation is of fundamental importance, because DNA double-strand breaks can lead to all of the different biological end-points observed in the fossil record. The expression of genetic information by DNA occurs as a result of RNA and protein synthesis. As a consequence, the radiation induced structural alteration of DNA molecules will alter genetic expression, producing new species.

Other molecular regulatory phenomena may weaken or amplify radiation's effect on DNA. The effects of radiation on DNA occur in body cells (mitosis) and reproductive cells (meiotic drive), bringing about uniform changes in a group of the same organisms, hence extinction and speciation take place. "Imperfect" corrections of DNA damage produce mutations that can lead to evolution and extinction. Episodes in evolution parallel those of DNA, which shows bursts of base substitutions (exon shuffling) followed by long periods of no substitutions. Collectively, the evidence reveals the fact that periods of increased radiation can be responsible for the mass extinctions and mass speciations seen in the fossil record.

RNA undergoes direct and indirect mutations from ionizing radiation, as well. One indirect effect involves alterations in DNA that exert modifications on RNA. Expression of the genetic information encoded in DNA involves the synthesis of RNA and protein. Alterations may modify the genetic information of DNA, leading to different bases in (messenger) RNA. This is in addition to the sensitivity of RNA (polymerase) itself, the effects of which include a decrease and occasionally an increase in RNA synthesis. Like DNA, RNA also demonstrates a history of (exon) shuffling that could be the result of episodes of intensified levels of ionizing radiation.

Protein also undergoes radiation induced transmutations. Recognition of protein interactions with DNA or RNA entails the electronic features of the molecules and their (steric) arrangement. Molecules with this type of molecular recognition include the major cellular components known as cytochrome C, haem protein, other proteins, and the enzymes of DNA and RNA (nucleases). The electronic and energetic aspects of the molecules correspond to their physical and chemical properties. One characteristic involves the electron donor or acceptor properties, which bring about a protein's potential for being affected by ionizing radiation. Because ionizing radiation carries charges it effects the electronic and energetic properties of the molecules. This charge shift affects protein bonding, and protein bonding is part of the stability of the genetic information.

Both the built-in (intrinsic) energy states of proteins and direct tunneling of electrons through impurity centers are involved in electron transfer. This appears to be particularly true for impurity centers with iron or an element with the same degree of reaction (valence). For example, a component of the cell, called the mitochondria, regulates the electrochemical gradient of the cell, especially protons. Within the mitochondria is cytochrome, which is involved in electron transport and utilizes iron-sulphur proteins. Examination of the evolutionary rates of mitochondria should therefore be more rapid if ionizing radiation is offsetting the electrochemistry of the cell (by causing internal ionization). Observations indicate mitochondrial DNA evolves at a rate that is five to ten times faster than nuclear DNA in various types of organisms. Such a finding indicates that mitochondrial and nuclear heredity (genomes) evolve independently while under similar environmental conditions.

A scientist asserts: "Ionizing radiation has turned out to be a powerful tool for changing the genetic material."

Also having effects on genetic expression are microwaves, which can be produced by lightning (whistlers). Also having an effect are hydrocarbons, which can be produced by the polymerization of methane in the atmosphere, and also the production of acid rain (nitric acid). All of these effects can be brought about by ionizing radiation in the atmosphere.

It is staggering to think that such minor changes can be so important. Small sections of chromosomes, known as alleles, are in the thousands, but only 10 or 100 need change to produce a whole new genus (a group of related species). Plants that were genetically engineered using ionizing radiation had improved protein content, structure, resistance to disease and pests, and better adaptability to the environment. In the case of evolution, this would mean a better ability to survive, and the fossil record shows that plants are the least affected by extinction. No scientist would doubt that ionizing radiation could be responsible for evolution and extinction, but there is no known source for the radiation in the conventional framework. However, with FEM there is a source below the assumed protective shield of the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere from cosmic radiation. There are also other factors at work, such as, geomagnetic fluctuations.

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Geomagnetic Excursions and Evolution

Another source for genetic mutation is the reversal or reduced strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Again, it is the electronic and magnetic features of biological molecules that make them susceptible to the influences from such forces. DNA becomes aligned perpendicular to a magnetic field when using the axis of the DNA helix as a reference point. One scientist studying the possible role of magnetic reversals on DNA comments: "This would constitute a new type of mutational force and perhaps could be used to explain, in a rather direct fashion, the interrupted speciation accompanying geomagnetic reversals."

DNA is not the only genetic material affected by magnetic fields. Also affected are RNA and protein. Magnetic fields have been shown to stimulate the formation of mutations. And reduced magnetic field strengths have produced profound irreversible body mutations in higher animals. The return to full strength of the Earth's magnetic field enhances the production of reproductive cells (shortens the mitotic cycle), which would intensify the spread of any mutation.

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The Evolutionary Scenario

The series of events at times of extinctions and speciation follow a certain pattern. First ionizing radiation breaks chromosomes and their constituents: DNA, RNA and protein. Then electrostatic effects alter active sites, and due to electronic and magnetic properties of the molecules (i.e., ferromagnetism, etc.), reorders the genetic material. A weakened or reversed geomagnetic field shuffles the material more so. Finally, microwaves, hydrocarbons, acid rain and other chemical fluctuations produced by ionizing radiation add the last of the transitions. The end result is organisms that have transformed so completely that they are categorized as new organisms -- speciation -- or organisms that could not survive the mutation -- extinction. The scenario is more on the order of extinction leading to speciation, because mass extinctions are followed by mass speciations, and the number of species has grown with time.

Much in the fossil record confirms this evolutionary scheme. Ionizing radiation is evident in the geologic and fossil records as irradiated minerals, such as iridium, tektites and microtektites, bones that are radioactive, mummified fossils, abrupt shifts in the levels of elements known as isotopes, and selective extinctions. The huge deposits of fossilized bones that make-up phosphate rock deposits is staggering, and they are often radioactive. The conditions under which these fossil bones were deposited do not exist today, as they appear to have been cut off from both sea and air, and no sedimentation took place as they were laid down. The chemical process that transformed the bones into phosphate is unknown and could have involved ionizing radiation, especially since the deposits are radioactive.

Microwaves and ionizing radiation dry vegetation, and the decay of neutrons produces lightning that could ignite wildfires, which are also recorded throughout the geologic record during these times. Everything that takes place has parallels with a nuclear war scenario, even shocked minerals, hydrocarbons and acid rain. Cycles in geological events are accompanied by cycles in the molecular clock (they might better be referred to as episodic). Mass extinctions are always followed by a blossoming of new species. Often the Earth's magnetic field drops in intensity and/or reverses or wanders. These observations will be addressed to some extent in Tome Three with particular reference to the time of the dinosaurs' extinction (i.e., K/T Boundary event).

The scientific community is looking for new interpretations of the fossil record. "Conventional dogma is being questioned and in some cases discarded. We are seeing a change from dominantly gradualist interpretations of natural phenomena to those that emphasize chaotic events."

Many scientists have suggested that ionizing radiation was responsible for mass extinctions. For example, a supernova, asteroid or comet, and a super solar flare have been proposed as sources for ionizing radiation bringing an end to the reign of the dinosaur. Some have asserted that the repeated events of extinction and blossoming of new species is the result of ionizing radiation. Many events show dramatic fluctuations in elements (isotopes), such as oxygen and carbon. Some events have been associated with iridium, an irradiated mineral. Wildfires have occurred repeatedly throughout geological history. And abrupt climate transitions and extinction events have taken place throughout Earth history. All of these observations could be expected of FEM, while no conventional theory explains all of the facts.

The fireball of a nuclear exchange is composed of ionizing radiation (largely gamma-rays and neutrons), and reflects much of what is found in the fossil record. There would be the extinction of large fraction of the Earth's animals, plants and microorganisms, including the mass extinction of plankton, genetic mutation, nutrient dumping, climatic cooling, wildfires, hydrocarbons, acid rain, soot, and shocked and/or irradiated minerals. In fact, the nuclear winter scenario was partly conceived by considering the effects of the fireball created by an asteroid impact, which has been theorized to have caused the mass extinctions that accompanied the dinosaurs' demise. However, many facts contradict the impact theory, as will be discussed in Tome Three.

Marine mass extinctions also occur in cycles. Two scientists comment: "Perhaps most importantly, it indicates that mass extinctions are not independent events, but rather are dependent on some single ultimate cause that recurs at regular intervals."

The Vital Vastness provides more evidence for this evolutionary scenario. It can easily explain the selective nature of the extinctions during the event that caused the dinosaurs' extinction. This event is marked by what is referred to as the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary. To see a partial discussion and excerpts on this event see the web page on the Dinosaur Extinctions.

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Here, There and Everywhere -- Mass Extinctions, Mass Speciations and Paleobiogeography

Studies of mass extinctions have uncovered facts that are predictable when considering the possibility that there are events with increased levels of ionizing radiation. Mass extinctions are not random and are not related to an organism's ability to survive. Unlike other (background) times of extinction, mass extinctions are abrupt at the family level.

Those species which have a broader geographic dispersal and few species within a group (low speciation rates) have extinction resistance during mass extinctions. Typically, it is those marine organisms that are in the open-ocean or deep-ocean (benthic), such as certain shellfish (ammonites), that survive or are the last holdouts at mass extinction boundaries. However, during all large mass extinctions both surface (planktonic) and some deep-water (benthic) marine organisms become extinct. This is sufficient to rule out any cosmic origin of the ionizing radiation, such as a supernova. Meanwhile, this does not rule out FEM with the ionizing radiation being released through Fields in the oceans below the protective effects of the atmosphere and magnetosphere. Studies do disclose very disturbed oceans and atmosphere at times of mass extinctions.

Without FEM, mass extinctions remain enigmatic: "In spite of the obvious importance of extinction, and in spite of the fact that hundreds of thousands of extinctions in the geologic past have been documented, we know surprisingly little about the process itself and surprisingly little about its actual role in evolution."

Other observations confirm the reality that mass extinctions are due to episodes of ionizing radiation. The shallow-water reef-building communities are so disrupted that it takes the longest for them to reappear in the fossil record. Reefs are very high in calcium, which absorbs a great deal of radiation, and they do not have outer tissues or deep water to protect them. Moreover, reefs are typically located in the Field areas as can be seen both in the past and the present.

The severity of reef extinction is not the case with other groups of organisms. Mass extinctions of four-footed land animals (tetrapods) are not as great as marine extinctions, nor are the extinctions due to a decrease in fitness. Reptiles (amniota) are radiation sensitive, and show the cycles or episodes of the marine extinctions. Meanwhile, mammals display only the slenderest coincidence with those cycles, and those with more protection, because of a placenta, are less vulnerable than those with pouches, known as the marsupials. Radiation sensitivity is greatest in reptiles followed by marsupials and finally placental mammals, and the extinction record displays the same trend. During extinctions there is the mass disappearance of many types (taxa), then a few remain that later become extinct, and finally, totally new types emerge (see Figure 4).

Plants offer further evidence of such events, and have been studied extensively under the influence of ionizing radiation. Plant breeding using ionizing radiation has been going on for decades. A few of the most obvious alterations are increased protein, greater yields, and resistance to disease. There is even better adaptability to varied environmental conditions after radiation exposure. In most studies, plants showed superior height, weight and reproduction. Under high doses there is a great deal of mutation (e.g., tetraploidy, cytochimeras, etc.). Overall, plants are much less susceptible to ionizing radiation than animals, by a factor of ten. The fossil record shows that plants are the least susceptible to mass extinction, again reflecting their sensitivity to ionizing radiation.

The fossil record discloses that, compared to animals, plants are much less vulnerable to mass extinctions and do not show the cycles or episodes of extinction. When high levels of plant extinction do occur, it is at those times when great mass extinctions occur in animals (Late Devonian, Permo-Triassic and Late Cretaceous). Dry spores under oxygen-deficient (anoxic) conditions are very resistant to radiation. Typically such conditions occur during mass extinction episodes, at times due to wildfires and dramatic climate fluctuations. Spore-bearing plants have lasted the longest in the evolutionary history of plants.

During one of the great mass extinctions (Permo-Triassic) a pine (conifer) embryo was discovered in North America. This fossil disclosed that a significant delay occurred between fertilization and seed germination in the earliest pines (conifers). Today it is the most modern seed-plants that undergo a delay in germination, and dormancy is more common in flowering plants. Meanwhile, ionizing radiation is well known to delay seed germination. Furthermore, this pine embryo displayed no larval or fungal damage, and ionizing radiation is employed today for this very reason to preserve food, as it destroys organisms in the food.

Developmental processes are similar at the genetic level in flowering plants. Then, unique development accounts for the evolution of plant diversity. A scientist studying the effects of ionizing radiation on plant communities comments that the effects follow "predictable patterns apparently related to the evolution of life."

Another indication of the effects of ionizing radiation is the appearance of new species. Four-footed land animals (tetrapods) experience family extinction and speciation in unison and in cycles, and are not the result of changes in fitness. Even plants display a clear cyclic relationship of first and last appearances. Calcium-bearing, surface dwelling shellfish, such as foraminifera, are so frequently replaced by new species after extinction that they are used to date rocks (i.e., they are index fossils). The history of life clearly shows a blossoming of new species after extinctions. Every fact could clearly be predicted from ionizing radiation's effects.

Extinctions even show geographic relationships to the Fields of FEM.

Considering the position of the Fields, which release most of the ionizing radiation along the 30o to 40o latitudes, a latitude segregation should also be apparent. Fossils of marine mammals (Cetaceans), such as whales and dolphins, certain (Hermatypic) corals, and shellfish (bivalve molluscs and benthic foraminifera) disclose that the newer, more advanced species are found in the tropics, while the higher the latitude -- the further from the Field latitudes -- the more ancient species are found. This Field-latitude segregation is also true for both open ocean (pelagic) and bottom-dwelling (benthic) shellfish (invertebrates), fish, reptiles and mammals.

Latitude constraints are common to all extinctions for all types of organisms. This is especially true of shallow-water marine creatures, particularly reef communities, where low latitude types are more severely affected than those with polar and worldwide distribution (cosmopolitan). The facts support what could be expected from FEM.

The positions of the Fields would tend to produce more extinctions, more species and more diversity in the tropical to temperate regions. The study of the geographic distribution of life, biogeography and paleobiogeography, tells that tale. Some of the earliest plant distributions (Early Devonian and Carboniferous) are mostly between the 30o latitudes. When considered in terms of shifting continents, coals, evaporites, easterly and westerly winds, low and high pressure systems, and rainfall during these times also demonstrates a latitudinal bias that conforms to the Field regions. This holds true for all time periods.

Another confirmation of the influence of the Fields in biogeography are what is called centers of origin. These centers of origin are labeled as such because they display the earliest known fossils of a given organism, and also greater diversity than surrounding regions. Both polar regions, the Arctic and Antarctic, are two such centers. The other Field regions are represented by centers in the southeastern United States, West Indies and Central America (North Atlantic Field), and Australia and New Zealand (East and West Australian Fields). Other centers of origin are southeastern Africa and Madagascar (South African Field), North Africa (Mediterranean and Persian Gulf Fields), Eastern Europe, Ethiopia, Turkestan and other countries around the Persian Gulf (Persian Gulf Field), Brazil (Brazilian Field), and Southeastern Asia, Indonesia and the Orient (Japanese Field).

A scientist who studies ancient and present-day geographic distributions of living things, expounds on an unsolved problem: "What we really need to find out is why the evolutionary process that goes on in centers produces species that are dominant in terms of their ability to displace other, older species and to become widespread."

Again, it is the genetic mutation of the older species that gives rise to the newer species. It is not that they are "dominant" and "displace" the older species, as would be assumed in the Darwinian scenario of competition and natural selection. Hence, we could predict that the older species would be replaced by the younger species in the region of enhanced ionizing radiation. Species are not produced by competition in terms of natural selection, but by genetic mutation on a broad scale brought on by ionizing radiation, and other factors (electrostatic fields, magnetic reversals, pulsed radio-frequency fields, microwaves, hydrocarbons and alkalinity) produced by the Fields, and the particles which flow within them (neutrons, gamma-rays, X-rays and energetic electrons).

In those times when these evolutionary events take place there are also alterations in the physical environment that bare the signature of ionizing radiation. Reduced geomagnetic intensity, and polar wandering and/or reversal typically occur. There is also evidence of strong magnetic activity around the 30o to 40o latitudes between reversals, which has been referred to as a transitional field (see Tome Five for discussion). This transitional field is the Field(s) spewing out ionizing radiation as the North-South dipole is weakened. Many of the events that take place occur in cycles or episodes of similar duration.

Evidence of highly disturbed oceans include sedimentary records of changes in sea level, fluctuations in salinity and isotopes, and deposits of black shale, all of which occur in each episode. Likewise, there is a highly disturbed atmosphere, resulting in severe temperature drops leading to temperature minimums or glaciation, shifts in precipitation, large-scale winds and storms, pressure modifications, and fluctuations in carbon, hydrocarbons and isotopes. Climatic transitions and evolution go hand in hand.

As could be suspected from fluctuations in ionizing radiation, isotopes in both the ocean and the atmosphere undergo transitions in their abundance. Seafloor spreading, continental displacement (tectonic episodes), volcanic eruptions and so forth often accompany the other transformations. Records frequently show extensive areas of missing sediments (hiatuses) on submarine ridges and rises, and occasionally, even the deep abyssal floors, which reflects strong, deep ocean currents at such times. Iridium, tektites or microtektites occasionally occur at unusually high levels in the sediments laid down at these times. Cratering occasionally takes place, but not of the impact types (mostly cryptoexplosions or geoblemes, not volcanic nor impact; see discussion in Tome Three). All of these phenomena tend to occur in cycles together or nearly so, though it is rare to find a complete record for a single event with all of these phenomena occurring at the same time.

During these episodes mass extinctions take place, and eventually new species emerge. First there is the mass disappearance of many types (taxa), then a few remain that also eventually become extinct, and finally, totally new types emerge. One paleontologist discusses these "radiations" or blossomings: "Many of the radiations of the geologic record are as spectacular as the mass extinctions, although they have not attracted as much attention." Likewise, the last and first appearances of plants and animals tend to coincide.

Another paleontologist describes this phenomena in four-footed animals (tetrapods): "The total origination rates generally track the total extinction rates quite closely." The selective nature of the extinctions involve types (taxa) that are big-bodied, tropical, have few species, and are land or terrestrial types; a predictable scenario for FEM. Furthermore, origination and speciation track each other so closely because extinction is the result of mutation, which leads to origination and speciation.

In the marine realm, it is the surface dwelling plankton, reef communities and immobile, deep-water (sessile benthic) shellfish that are most affected. The immobile deep-water shellfish are those that typically inhabit the waters in the Field areas. Meanwhile, the least affected are the mobile deep-water (benthic) types.

Increased diversity occurs through time, and speciation follows each extinction event. Meanwhile, in spite of this overall increase of creatures, the number of four-footed animals (tetrapods) per classification (taxon rates) decreases toward the present. Latitude variations are common to all mass extinctions with tropical and temperate types more affected than polar or worldwide (cosmopolitan) types. These facts argue in favor of ionizing radiation and the associated factors causing the extinction of old types, and bringing about an equal number or more numerous new types through mutation. The new types are so totally different they must be put into new classifications, hence a decrease in the number of members for each classification (per taxon rates) and an overall increase in diversity towards the present. These facts and the latitude restrictions confirm that the phenomena associated with FEM is the unknown process behind evolution, including extinction and speciation.

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Cycles of Extinction

The idea of Earth history occurring in cycles had originated as the result of examining the record of extinctions. Thirty-nine stratigraphic stages (from the Permian to the Tertiary) disclose that one of the highest species or taxonomic classifications, families, had lost more than half of the original families to extinction (of 1,800 families, 970 became extinct). Many of the mass extinctions involve calcium-bearing organisms who undergo steps in extinction. As discussed previously, extinctions are correlated to cycles of polar reversals, cratering, tectonic events and other phenomena. Many of these extinctions had occurred abruptly. One mass extinction involved the loss of 96% of all marine species (Permian/Triassic Boundary). Though once a popular explanation, the closing of the ocean basins is not sufficient to explain such a widespread extinction. Another mass extinction (Mid to Late Carboniferous) displays an abrupt event for shelled marine creatures (invertebrates) on the Russian Platform that cannot be attributed to any ecological or physical transformation. Furthermore, the scientist studying this region came to the conclusion that it was the result of a worldwide increase in ionizing radiation.

After studying extinctions throughout the history of life, a scientist who attributes the events to radiation comments on a fact not explained by other theories: "It should be noted only that the sharp changes in organic life at stratigraphic boundaries are recorded almost synchronously in the most varied groups of fauna and flora." Numerous studies disclose that extinctions are followed by the blossoming of new species (see Chapters 22 and 23). Thus, observations always indicate a worldwide influence affecting all plants and animals (flora and fauna), which is not what could be expected of regional changes in habitat, gradual adaptation, and competition. Instead, the observations fit a scenario of genetic mutation induced by ionizing radiation and the other phenomena produced by a highly activated Field-dynamical Earth Model.

It is along these lines that we might find a means for a resolution to the evolution/creation controversy. There can be a special creation with all the genetic information available at the beginning, which is then rearranged into new sequences to produce new species through time. It can even be thought of as the maturing and growth of the biosphere. The biggest problem is that Darwinism and natural selection are being touted as the process when the evidence shows that this is not what is taking place in evolution (i.e., natural selection is a relatively minor, secondary influence).

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Related News Stories

-- Last Update: January 01, 2011

  • A New Study Shows that More Species Become Extinct and More Originate in the Mid-Latitudes. This Latitude Diversity Gradient, as it is called, shows a decrease of diversity from the equator and mid-latitudes to the poles. This is to be expected of the role of the Field-dynamical Earth Model, whose Fields emit ionizing radiation at mid-latitudes. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, Tome Three. [source: Krug, A.Z., et al (2009) Generation of Earth's First-Order Biodiversity Pattern. Astrobiology 9(1): 113-124].

  • Extinction Rates are Lower in Open-Ocean Areas than in Shallow Continental Seas. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, Tome Three, and again conforms with FEM's release of ionizing radiation. Those creatures most protected by deep water will receive less of the effects of the radiation, as deep water, especially salty water, is a buffer against radition. See the Sciencedaily.com article. [source: Miller, A.I., Foote, M. (2009) Epicontinental Seas Versus Open-Ocean Settings: The Kinetics of Mass Extinction and Origination. Science 326: 1106-1109].

  • Godwana, the Supercontient, Underwent a Major Shift at the Time of the Cambrian Explosion. That is, a major explosion of new species coinsided with either a huge shift in plate tectonics or polar wander. Again this shows a correspondence of evoltion and a shift in what the Field-dynamical Earth Model controls. See the Sciencedaily.com article.

  • Giant Gastropods have been Discovered Just a Short Time Following the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction, the Most Devastating Mass Extinction in Earth History. This discovery was unexpected, as they usually are smaller after mass extinctions. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, Tome Three, ionizing radiation can restructure chromosomes producing larger or smaller organisms following mass extinctions. See the Physorg.com news release or the Sciencedaily.com article. Also, as discussed The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, Tome Three, mass extinctions are always followed by mass speciations (large numbers of new species), and this is also true of this mass extinction. See the Physorg.com article. See the next entry.

  • Reptiles Changed their Posture from Sprawling to Walking Upright Immediately Following the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Genome Duplication is Found to be more Common in Plant Evolution than Previously Thought. The term used to describe this duplication is polyploidy, and experiment and field observations show that it is readily created as the result of ionizing radiation, as discussed The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, Tome Three. See the Sciencedaily.com article.

  • A New Study Confirms that Evolution is Less a Function of What a Physical Trait is and More a Result of Where the Genes that Affect that Trait Resides in the Chromosome (Genome). This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, Tome Three, and that ionizing radiation and other factors (geomagnetic fluctuations, changes in atmospheric pressure, etc.) break the chromosome, and reorder the genetic material, creating a new creature. See the Sciencedaily.com article.

  • The Posibility of Life Emerging from Accident is Huge. And, believing in life by accident is just as much a matter of faith as those of religion. See the Aish.com editorial commentary.

  • Once again Scientists Find Organic Biomaterials in Dinosaur Remains. Molecular preservation in Cretaceous dinosaurs is no longer considered a unique event, as many samples have been found. This time protein was found preserved in bone fragments and soft tissues of a Hadrosaur. [Source: Schweitzer, MH, et al (2009) Biomolecular Characterization and Protein Sequences of the Campanian Hadrosaur B. canadensis. Science 324: 626-631].

  • Here's One that can Only Be Explained by Ionizing Radiation, Geomagnetic Fluctuations and the Other Factors Discussed Above -- Two Identical Species only Each Inhabits the Opposite Pole. This argues against the proposed Darwinian perspective of extrinsic barriers -- i.e., geographic isolation. Whats more is that 234 other species inhabit both the Arctic and Antarctic waters, and they have no way to traverse the warm waters in between both. So, how did they get there? As discussed in The Vital Vatness -- Volume One, if there is a species that originally inhabited both poles and went through the same periods and intensities of ionizing radiation (and the other factors), they could thereby evolve in parallel evolution. There are number of species that have undergone such a process, that are noted in the fossil record. The typical explanation is long-distance rafting, were a species who is already in the process of reproduction (pregnant, has eggs, etc.) gets on a piece of wood, floating vegetation or such, and is carried to another geographic location. With these species, however, there are no currents that could take them from one polar region to the other. See the National Geographic article and photos and the Livescience.com article.

  • Impacts as Agents of Mass Extinctions is Losing its Crediblity. As has been discussed on this web page and in The Vital Vatness -- Volume One, asteroid or comet impacts are not enough to cause mass extinction events, but instead a drawnout series of events is indicated. See the MSNBC.com article or the Sciencedaily.com news release.

  • The Coincidence of an Impact and Flood Basalt Volcanism 30 Million Yeatrs Ago was Not Associated with any Mass Extinction. Here is a relatively similar scenario to the mass extinction that did in the dinosaurs, but no mass extinction. See the Sciencedaily.com news release.

  • Mass Extinctions are Not Attributed to Impacts, but a "Sick Earth." What is particularly noted is that there are major coral extinctions, indicating disturbed ocean chemistry, but the source is unknown. See the Physorg.com article. Meanwhile, as discussed in The Vital Vatness -- Volume One, highly disturbed oceans are typical at times of mass extinctions, and that it is due to the Fields of the Field-dynamical Earth Model, whose Field stems are in the oceans.

  • More Evidence Indicates that Mass Extinctions are Not Caused by Impact or Massive Volcanic Eruptions. See the ScienceNow article.. [source: Berardelli, P, Mass Extinction: Out with a Whimper Not a Bang. ScienceNow (Nov 7, 2007)].

  • T. Rex Soft Tissue is Found to be Still Preserved -- A 21st Century Paleontological Bomb. Soft tissue still preserved after 68 million years is stirring up things in palenotology, because tissue, especially soft tissue, is not supposed to be able to survive such a stretch of time without decaying; that is in the typical scenario. However, ionizing radiation can preserve tissue, and today it is used for this very purpose. Paleonotologists don't consider this possiblity, and so, it has sparked a debate as to whether it is truly tissue. Meanwhile, it fully supports the theory proposed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One (Tome Three), which is partially discussed on the web pages Dinosaur Extinction: No Comet or Asteriod Impact Here, and Evolution, Mass Exrinctions and Mass Speciations. See the National Geographic News Item, and the North Carolina State University news release. Because it is such an unexpected find there are others who are trying to bebunk the find as tissue, saying instead that it is bacteria, even thoght there was identifiable protein. [sources: Schweitzer, M.H, et al (2005) Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 307: 1952-1955, Asara, J.M., et al (2007) Protein Sequences from Mastodon and Tyrannosaurus Rex Revealed by Mass Spectrometry. Science 316: 280-285 and Asara, J.M., et al (2007) Interpreting Sequences from Mastodon and T. Rex. Science 317: 1324-1325].

  • The Burgess Shale, a Rock Formation Brimming with Whole Fossils (Even Soft-Bodied Animals), was the Result of a Catastrophic Event that Created a Mud Slurry. See the MSNBC.com article.

  • The Mass Extinction Marking the Permo-Traissic Boundary was the Worst Mass Extinction in the Fossil Record, and it was Followed by a Mass Speciation. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One (Tome Three), and Evolution, Mass Exrinctions and Mass Speciations. Mass speciations like this result from the genetic mutation triggered by ionizing radation. This occurs with all mass extinctions, though little is discussed on mass speciations. As typical of such events more complex creatures emerged, particularly in the oceans where most of the mass extinctions occurred. See the spaceref.com article [source: Wolfgang Kiessling (2006) Paleoecology: Life's Complexity Cast in Stone. Science 314:1254-1255].

  • New Study Shows that Mass Extinctions Occur at Times of Fluctuating Sea Level. They suggest that this is the cause of mass extinctions, but it is really just one of the geophysical aspects of those times when there are mass extinctions. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness --Volume One (Tome Three) and is an aspect of all mass extinctions, because the Field-dynamical Earth's Fields control the tectonic plate boundaries and the Fields are situtated in the oceans (both their stems and descending limbs) and thus effect sea level. Part of this discussion can be found on the web page Evolution, Mass Extinctions and Mass Speciations. See also the Sciencedaily.com article and the University of Wisconsin Newswise news release.

  • There are Times When it Appears there are "Asteroid Impacts" that are Followed by Mass Speciations, such as in the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. There is the assumption that the presence of chromite and osmium isotopes indicates an "extraterrestrial" event, but irradiated chromite and osmium can be terrestrial. Moreover, FEM spews out ionizing radiation and minerals during times of mass extinctions, and the ionizing radiation causes genetic mutation, hence mass speciations. See the Cosmosmagazine news item. [source: Schmitz, B. et al. (2007) Asteroid breakup linked to the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. Nature Geoscience 1: 49-53].

  • Again, a Mass Extinction is Associated with Isotopes, and Scientists are Assuming that they are Extraterrestrial and Impact Related. This time it is helium and argon isotopes in fellerenes (buckyballs), a carbon based soccer-ball shaped structured molecule that can trap gases. Moreover, the helium and argon isotopes, as well as fullerenes, can be produced by ionizing radiation. Again suggesting it was ionizing radiation is that this mass extinction was followed by a mass speciation. See the Firstscience news story.

  • Some Sites Show Increased Biodiversity for Insect and Plant Populations After the Disaster that Made an End of the Dinosaurs. The problem is that the insects, in particular, should have been decimated had it been an asteroid impact. That is, the scenario includes a huge light-shrouding cloud of debris killing off all vegetaion, which the insects depend on for food. Again, this fact argues in favor of a different scenario, as does the survival of the honeybee. See the livescience.com article

  • Once Again, a Mummified Dinosaurs in Found Intact, Skin and All. It seems that by itself these sorts of finds provide further evidence that ionizing radiation dominated the end of the Cretaceous. The finds of mummified fossils are particularly confined to the end of the Cretaceous, such as this one, which is 65 million years old. Moreover, it is a duck-billed dinosaur, a dinosaur that shows many skull changes (skeletal mutations?) in the late Cretaceous. Ionizing radiation is exceptionally good at preserving tissue, as it kills any bacteria that would decay the animal. In fact, ionizing radiation -- particularlly gamma-rays -- is used to preserve meat today. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One. See the FoxNews.com article (note the slide show), and Physorg.com news brief.

  • New Mammal and Bird Species occur More in the Higher Latitudes than in the Tropics, in Contrast to What is Suspected. As discussed in The Vital Vastness this is the result of the Fields of the Field-dynamical Earth Model which are located above and below the equatorial buldge, and therefore, ionizing radiation affects the higher latitudes, and not the tropics as much. This study confirms that. Most evolutionary biologists, even Darwin himself, expected the tropics to have higher rates of extinction and speciation due to more competition (greater number of speices) and the assumed "survival of the fittest" scenario. See the Livescience.com news item. [source: Weir, J.T., Schulter, D. (2007) The Latitudinal Gradient in Recent speciation and Extinction Rates of Birds and Mammals. Science 315:1574-1576].

  • Again there is the Unexpected -- Soft Tissue Proteins were Found in Two Long-Extinct Animals, T-rex and a Mastodon! The surprizing part is that protein could survive such a long time, in the conventional sense. However, this is to be expected from FEM and the role of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation can preserve protein, and is presently used to preserve meats. See the Sciencedaily.com , and World-science.com articles.

  • A Genetic Techique Shows that it is Possible to Reverse Evolution. There are many plants and animals that have disappeared from the fossil record for long spans of time only to show up as "living fossils" today. This is known as the Lazarus Effect. This shows that shuffling gene sequences can be a major aspect of evolution, and as shown in many experiements, the most effect thing to do this is ionizing radiation. This entire scenario and the evidence that ionizing radiation (and other less-dominate factors) is a major factor are presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One. See the msnbc.msn.com article.

  • The Mass Extinction Marking the Permo-Traissic Boundary was the Worst Mass Extinction in the Fossil Record, and it was Followed by a Mass Speciation. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One and results from the genetic mutation triggered by ionizing radation (and other less-dominate factors). This occurs with all mass extinctions, though little is discussed on mass speciations. As typical of such events more complex creatures emerged, particularly in the oceans where most of the mass extinctions occurred. See the spaceref.com article [source: Wolfgang Kiessling (2006) Paleoecology: Life's Complexity Cast in Stone Science 314:1254-1255].

  • Some Sites Show a Biodiversity for Insect and Plant Populations After the Disaster that Made an End of the Dinosaurs. The problem is that the insects, in particular, should have been desimated had it been an asteroid impact. That is, the scenario includes a huge light-shrouding cloud of debris killing off all vegeataion, which the insects depend on. Again, this agrues in favor of a different scenario, as does the survival of the honeybee. See the livescience.com article

  • Observation May Solve One of the Great Mysteries of Evolution, Involving the Sudden Emergence of Flowering Plants. Researchers found a sudden polyploidy event -- an ancient whole-genome (large gene sequence) duplication -- that could explain flowering plants' emergence. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on plants show that plants often undergo polyploidy alterations. This supports the idea that major evolutionary changes are the result of ionizing radiation, and the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM) releases ionizing radiation. This is the process behind mass extinctions and mass speciations, and much of evolution. See the Physorg.com news item. Ironically, the news item relates this to Darwin who could not explain the origin of flowering plants and didn't consider ionizing radiation as a factor.

  • Once again, an Animal Thought to Have Gone Extinct Long Ago is Found. This sort of thing has happened many times before, and is known as the Lazarus Effect (a scientific term that has roots in the biblical Lazarus who died and came back to life). One should ask the question: Is it possible that a lost genetic code was once again recoded? This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, and there are many such cases that have been noted. That is, did the genetic code reappear after being lost for 11 million years? See the Livescience.com news story. Also see the next entry.

  • Jurrasic Tree, Long Thought to be Extinct is Found Growing in Australia. Whether this is a long overlooked phenomena -- a living fossil -- or an example of a extinct species reemerging -- the Lazarus Effect -- is not clear at present. See the Physorg.com article. See also the previous entry.

  • The Great Mass Extinction at the Confluence of the Permian and Triassic has a Crater. The evidence indicates a central uplift typical of ejection, and the crater seems odd even to the scientists. See the BBC news release.

  • A Supernova Explosion is Blamed for Mammoth Extinction. The evidence is again that ionizing radiation is responsilbe for a mass extinction. Typical of conventional thought is that it had to come from somewhere outside of the Earth, so the assumption is that it must be a supernova. Actually, it is the Earth itself -- the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM) -- as discussed in The Vital Vastness. See the Physorg.com article. See also the next entry.

  • A New Study Suggests that a Gamma-Ray Burst Could Have Caused an Ancient Mass Extinction. This is typical of modern perspectives to think that the source is outside of the Earth, but the Earth emits ionizing radiation and it is this that causes mass extinctions. See the NASA News story. See also the previous entry.

  • Molecular Evolution, which deals with Genetic Mutations, has long Stated that Natural Selection was the End Point of Whether a New Species Survives, but that is Not the Case. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One and the process is simply whether a mutation is fit to survive, regardless of natural selection. See the Terradaily news story.

  • Gamma-rays where Thought to Only Occur from Extraterrestrial Celestial Objects, such a Galaxies and Neutron Stars until about 10 Years Ago, but Now They have been Found to Occur Within the Earth System. This can be expected of the fields of the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM), as they are particle accelerators, which routinely produce gamma-rays and X-rays. Scientists claim that it is super-fast electons hitting the molecules in the air, but they are at a loss as to why the electrons are so reved up, and this is because they do not yet know of FEM whose fields accelerate particles. In The Vital Vastness it was shown that the Earth emits gamma-rays and x-rays due to particle acceleration and ionizing radiation. So, here is a confirmation of that very thing. The researchers suggest that they are produced by thuderstorms, which are produced by masses of ionizing radiation. However, the observations show that the flashes are along mid-latitudes and in the regions of the fields of the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM). See the Universetoday.com article, Discovery.com article. or the original Science article [Source: Smith, D.M., et al (2005) Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes Observed Up to 20 Mev. Science 307:108-1088].

  • Once again, Scientists are Looking For Sources of Ionizing Radiation as a Cause of Mass Extinction -- This Time it is Gamma-rays Bursts in the Milky Way. While the logic is good for explaining the evidence of mass extinctions it is instead the Earth itself, as the Field-dynamical Earth Model emits ionizing radiation. See the Physorg.com article. Also, see the following two related stories.

  • Scientists Look to Interstellar Clouds as a Cause of Mass Extinctions. It is hypothesized that these clouds iced over the Earth or depleted the protective ozone layer, allowing ultraviolet radiation to enter the biosphere. Again, the idea is there a source of ionizing radiation. See the Space.com article. Also, see the previous and following entries.

  • Viable Tissue has been Found in T. Rex Bones. Soft tissue and blood vessles where thought to always be replaced by minerals, and certainly not viable. However, ionizing radiation can be an aid in the preservation of biological tissue, as is currently done with meat. [Source: Mary H. Schweitzer, et al. (2005) Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 307:1952-1955].

  • A New Study Shows that Marine Biodiversity Undergoes a Cycle of 62 Million Years, and this is for Both Originations (New Species) and Extinctions. Paleontology has no theoretical basis for explaining this phenomena. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One and is the result of cycles of ionizing radiation involving the Field-dynamical Earth Model. See the SBACnews.com

  • A Recent Study of Marine Fossils Over a Period of 542 Million Years (i.e., the Phanerozoic) Shows Cycles of Diversity of Approximately 62 Million Years. The question now remains what is responseble for the cycles. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two cycles are common phenomena with the Field-dynamical Earth Model. [Source: Rohde, R.A., Muller, R.A. (2005) Cycles in Fossil Diversity. Nature 434-208-210].

  • The Greatest Mass Extinction at the End of the Permian Shows Genetic Mutations. While the scientists claim that it was the result of massive volcanic activity that was taking place in Siberia, it is instead radiation. Meanwhile, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One the mutation is due to the release of ionizing radiation into the atmosphere by the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM). This also took place at other times of mass extinction, many times when there was no massive volcanic activity. See the Spacedaily.com article, and Rednova story.

  • The Earth's Hum Appears to be the Result of a Coupling Between the Atmosphere, Ocean and Seafloor. The Field-dynamical Earth Model's Fields couple the atmosphere, ocean and seafloor, and therefore, this is an indirect observation of this model. In fact, studies of mass extinctions have shown that the atmosphere, oceans and seafloor have all been affected at the time of the exticntions. See the Nature article. [Source: Rhie, J., Romanowicz, B. (2004) Excitation of Earth's Continuous Oscilliations by Atmosphere-Ocean-Seafloor Coupling. Nature 431:552-6.]

  • South Africa Reveals Spherules Typical of Impacts or Ejections, predating the Dinosaurs. The fact that these spherules are near the South African Field suggests that they are from a planetary ejection. In fact, they were originally the center of a scientific debate over whether they were the result of an impact or some purely earthbound process. If it was an impact, it was larger than the one that supposedly did in the dinosaurs, but there was no great mass extinction at the time these are dated to (3.2 billion years old -- the Precambrian). This was reported in the journal Geology [Source: Kyte, F.T., et al. (2003) Early Archean spherule beds; chromium isotopes confirm origin through multiple impacts of projectiles of carbonaceous chondrite type. Geology 31(3): 283-286].

  • Scientists Find that Gene Duplication is Common in Plants. As discussed in The Vital Vastness ionizing radiation breaks chromosomes, the genes can then be self-corrected and duplicated. Also, one of the effects of ionizing radiaton on plants is producing polyploidy (whole gene set) duplication. See the ScienceDaily story.

  • Rare Mummy Dinosaur Found. A mummified dinosaur was discovered in Montana. It has 80% of its skin intact, and the contents of its last meal were discernible. Michael J. Everhart of Fort Hays State University in Hays, Kansas, has this to say, "Something had to shut down the normal process of decomposition within just a few days. It's difficult to explain." [Source: "Dear Mummy" Science News Volume 162, pp. 243-244, October 19, 2002]. As fully supported with a great deal of evidence in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One this is the result of ionizing radiation. Radiation is even used today to preserve foods, especially meat.

  • Darwin was Wrong, Not All Life Arose from One Common Lifeform. Life did not begin with one primative cell. Rather, there were at least three simple types of cellular organizations that were loosely constructed. They were emerced in a soup of genes, evolving in a symbiotic way so that they aided one another in forming distinct types of cells, by sharing their genetic innovations. See the University of Illinois news story and Space Daily news story.

  • Typical of the Signs of Mass Extinction, Iridium and Fern Spores Appear Before the Sudden Appearance of Much Larger, Meat-Eating Dinosaurs. The sudden appearance of larger dinosaurs is really due to genetic mutation caused by ionizing radiation eminating from the Earth itself, as discussed on the web pages Dinosaur Extinctions -- No Comet or Asteroid Here, and Evolution, Mass Extinctions and Mass Speciations. See the New Scienstist story, which unfortunately claims that it is due to an impact.

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