Henry David Thoreau


George Santayana


Keywords: History, 13th-11th Centuries BC, global catastrophes, ancient authors, religion, mythology, Gaia theory, coming Earth changes, new millennium, natural disasters

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. This is basically an excerpt from the book, In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About, which is supported by scholarly references, historical writings, mythology, religious scriptures and more. Because this book is published the full scope and references could not be presented at present, but may be made available at a later date. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered.


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Introduction


Many of us look out into today's world, and see the threat of terrorism, war and natural disasters. Yet, we still do not realize the full scope of what is behind such events. The lessons of history tell quite a different tale than what we have been told about history. In Defense of Nature reveals a story that has been ignored by archeologists and historians. Consider a few excerpts from this book.

Note: All references to religious works are not meant to promote religion. Nor are they meant to prove the superiority of one religion over another. Rather, they are taken as historical sources.

In archeology nearly all of the valuable discoveries have originated by chance. Rarely does someone take a myth to heart, and discover a Troy buried beneath layers of volcanic ash. Many ancient cities have been found swallowed up in the forest, as were Tikal in Middle America and Angkor in Cambodia, covered with wild vegetation. Central Asia had hidden empires beneath its sands and wilderness, and little can be distinguished of the city that now rests under the sand dunes of the Gobi Desert. Even today there are those places that wallow in the mud of a swamp, while others are hidden beneath the waves of a lake, a sea, or the ocean. What lies beneath the permafrost of the tundra will most probably never be known, like with those ancient relics that are buried beneath the pack ice of Greenland and Antarctica, not to mention those ruins that rest beneath today's cities or unearthed ancient ones. After earthquakes, floods, a change in climate, disease, or the silting up of rivers or lakes, an area inhabited for hundreds of years becomes deserted. Others are abandoned after the pillaging and destruction of invading people. Regardless of the means, and irrespective of time, wildlife and vegetation reclaim the places humans leave behind.

In the perspective of the human relationship with the Earth, history is analogous to the black box in engineering. Like the wires protruding from the black box, we have tested the "contents" of historical events. However, unlike the engineering student who assumes nothing, we have instead assumed that history is only human. An historical archeologist's comment reflects the prevailing attitude in the discipline of archeology today: "Archeology is a technique by which facts are obtained for the construction of history and prehistory; and prehistory, like history, is humanity -- a way of looking at man and his works, not at Nature." This perspective has made us ignore the real knowledge our history offers, and as a result, repeatedly reflects, because humans are part of Nature.

Isn't an important fact being overlooked? One thing that seems to be forever ignored in every one of the recent history books is that all sites have had to be excavated. Regardless of whether the city, now in ruin, was laid to waste by earthquake, volcanics, flood, plague, or at the hand of a violent intruder, the site has had to be cleared of tons upon tons of soil, stone and debris, as well as vegetation and other life. The area began as Nature's domain and ended as Nature's domain. How can such an important fact be left out of history?

Why is it that the ultimate condition of every ancient site of humanity is unheeded? Is a civilization's final state any less important than its beginnings, development, customs and morals? Gargantuan earth-movements and disease -- these are most definitely Nature at work, but what of those who pillage and destroy? Who can say with any certainty that the violent intruder, regardless of what conscious reasons there might be, is not ultimately retrieving that area for living things to regain their foothold? After all, this return to wilderness is the final state of all that humans have ever built. Could it be that by interacting with the physical universe we humans cause the aggressive behavior responsible for this type of event by offsetting the subatomic world (quantum/molecular levels and the human psyche)? We humans are participators in, and influenced by, the physical universe, particularly at these levels, of this there is no doubt (this has been proven experimentally). Could it be that, as the nucleus of the Earth-cell, we are often engaged in renewing the Earth-cell without consciously knowing it? Though it may seem to some that archeology, and therefore history and prehistory, are examining humans only, and not Nature, it is instead the opposite. We humans are more a part of Nature than we ever imagined, in ways we never imagined.


Human History is a Natural History

The vast majority of earth-movements occur in order to bring equilibrium to the Earth's shape and surface, bringing about a stable environment in which life can secure itself. Time and time again, life has been replenished in many areas by geological processes. These regions range from urban to agricultural, where vital members of a life system no longer existed. Even today these areas are flooded, hit by earthquakes, bombed in war, and so forth, but wilderness is almost never ravaged by such forces (but mostly by humans).

Any living thing has the ability to mend damaged tissue. An injured nerve exhibits metabolic changes that repair the cell and restore its function. All geological phenomena, even that which seeks to balance the shape and surface of the Earth, end up restoring areas for more life, because life brings geological stability (e.g., only denuded landscapes have mud slides, etc.); this will become clear.

Destroying life in the habitat is equivalent to injuring the nerve of a cell. From the onset of clearing the first tract of land for a road, house, or field, in the building of all known civilizations, life is destroyed. Then the electrical-producing components of the soil undergo still further deterioration by the effects of erosion. Erosion severely depletes the amount of chemically active particles and water-absorbing organic matter, eradicating the habitat's, the Earth-cell's, electrical qualities. There is the elimination of the electrical activity (biogeoelectrostatic generator), continuous optical activity (chirowaveguide), and biological superconducting, conducting and semiconducting components, as well as prevents the grounding of electrical charges (due to the insulating properties of building materials).

The significance of civilization in altering the natural balance by erosion has been dramatically shown. Studies were taken, for example, in the Piedmont region of Maryland from the time of European settlement to the point of urban development in the 1960s. First to be reconstructed was the initial annual sediment yield as most of the land was in forest, when it was approximately 9 metric tons per square kilometer (25 tons/sq. mi.). From the 1820s to about 1900 the land was turned into farmlands, increasing erosion to about 210 tons per square kilometer (600 tons/sq. mi.). The impact of agriculture is clearly illustrated by the more than 24- fold increase in erosion. In the early 1930s, gradually more land was allowed to return to brush and forest, or put to pasture for livestock. The result was a decrease of erosion to 105 tons per square kilometer (200 tons/sq. mi.). Finally, as the area became more urbanized erosion reached a level that was more than 70 times greater than when the first settlement was established. Keep in mind this is annually and not a big city: What would a major city do?

It is best stated by a geomorphologist, a scientist that studies the factors behind changes in land- forms: "Clearly, cultivation and urbanization are two geomorphic factors that introduce radically different balances to the environment. It is in fact doubtful that any natural change or repeated catastrophes could exert a comparable effect over wide areas."

Once an urban or agricultural area is established, erosion takes place in less obvious, yet more dramatic, ways. Groundwater underneath the urban area reaches a depth where heat changes it to vapor, and it then rises through the soil, condensing on the bottoms of roads and buildings. There, droplets form and collect, which again move back through the soil, continually leaching minerals and organic matter (i.e., there is loss of the components that yield conducting properties and electrostatic grounding). Also contributing to erosion are farms, lawns, and gardens that require more water than the area's rainfall offers. Today there are gaping holes in the Florida and Texas landscape as a result, and satellite observations show that, at least, the cities of Dallas and Phoenix, and parts of Japan are sinking.

Insulators, such as roads, buildings and the other physical things which make up what is called civilization, inhibit the grounding of electricity. The virtual absence of open ground and life prevent the production of electrical activity at, or near, the Earth's surface (forestalling the biogeoelectrostatic generator). A region weakened physically, open to the strain of earth-movements, and electrically dead, which attracts storms, is the eventuality of this eroding force; many things first occur at the quantum and molecular levels, which are invisible to us.

Obviously, electrical activity is not the only force to be weakened, its companion, magnetism is also. A very similar situation occurs with the damaged cell and nerve fibers of a plant or animal before it is repaired. In fact, this is necessary for the healing response to take place, and the Earth seems to require similar responses before the reestablishment of life in a given area; the revitalizing of the Earth's cells (habitats). This will become clear.


The True Ascent of Humanity

Before proceeding with the discussion of history, it is absolutely essential that a few things be kept in mind. History is not exactly as we have been led to believe it is. The upward gradient of civilization, through accumulated knowledge over time, is only a part of the story. Often this so-called upward "progression" or "ascent" has been interrupted in favor of restoring Nature and renewing wilderness at the expense of civilization. That very general upward gradient has repeatedly had to start its ascension over, after a dramatic downward drop periodically occurs. Lost knowledge and civilizations are examples of a past we have never really faced. The perspective that seems to have prevailed is to identify too strongly with humanity's imagined potentials. So instead of learning from our mistakes, we have ignored the problems and failures in order to maintain a false image of human values, which ironically limits human potentials.

For this reason the information which follows, as has occurred with history itself, will be difficult for some people to acknowledge and accept. However, humanity's problems and failures will never disappear by ignoring them. We cannot and should not only learn from success and imitation. Furthermore, it is our responsibility to those who have suffered to understand the problems and failures so that they would not have suffered in vain; so that we should not suffer again.

Therefore, when proceeding, let's keep in mind that understanding humanity's past "failures" is the key to today's and tomorrow's successes. This history is a history for the present and the future. We humans have tremendous control on the world, both physical and social, and therefore with an understanding of our past, no matter how "unpleasant" it might seem, a new peaceful world, a new Earth, a virtual paradise is within our grasp. So let's not identify with human problems and failures, especially when examining history, but instead let's identify with our new found potentials; the only true ascent of humanity!


Cycles of Life's Renewal

The idea of renewing life on the Earth's surface, periodically, on a worldwide basis is not a new one. In a pessimistic way, the idea has been handed down to us from many cultures over countless centuries. What we do possess on this subject is amazingly abundant, considering the multitude of times in which conquering peoples destroyed written histories, legends and other information as not worthy of recognition, because their own minds and hands had not fashioned them.

The reason we do not learn of such cycles in history is because we all want human experience to make sense. Historians cater to that universal demand by emphasizing elements in the past that are definable, calculable, and usually controllable, as well. Times of the global ruin of civilizations run counter to the effort to make the past intelligible, and consequently historians played such episodes down.

Part of the reason for this denial is that we did not want to face the futility of our involvement in a world that we have grown to accept and maintain. Undoubtedly, every time an historian came across something that appeared to be the extensive global extinction of civilization, she or he reasoned it away. Or, quite simply, she or he was a specialist on only one region. Either it was merely not dealt with, was not explainable with the knowledge available, or the perspective of history as exclusively human was involved.

However, repression, forgetting something (history) and then forgetting we have forgotten (ignoring some aspects of history), is the Achilles' heel of human society. In this tome we will discover that periods when civilization is suppressed in the overall objective of life's renewal are not only real, but are also intelligible. Though worldwide "catastrophe" (forgive the use of this word as it implies negativity) is not a new idea, making it understandable and preventable is, which is the positive aspect of confronting it.

It is as though humanity is in its infancy. Like a child that disregards his parents' admonitions of "no, don't touch, it's hot," but still the child must be burned before the message really gets across. Likewise, how many of us will disregard this understanding, that the renewal of life worldwide at the expense of civilization occurs in cycles, without even looking at the evidence? Some may refuse this knowledge because they had gotten a distaste for such things as a result of some people who had attempted to debunk the status quo with theories that had no genuine validity. On the other side of the coin, there are some people that would prefer an Earth of lifeless stone and the gradual ascent of humanity, because this is what they have learned and defended all their lives. Some people would even label the worldwide renewal of life as "fatalism," when it is the belief in such a label that can cause, and has caused, humanity to ignore the information (hasty closure). Thereby, this mind-set brings that very thing into existence by not learning from our past. As Santayana so aptly put it, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." So we have -- let's not do it again!

For example, some people will point out that China, Russia, the city of Brussels, or whatever, are longstanding. However, in the process of perceiving this way, they ignore how often those cities and civilizations were shrouded in havoc and reduced to ruins. Ignoring the lesson, these areas were rebuilt, only to suffer more ruin, and be rebuilt again (and sometimes again and again, etc.). We still insist that they are longstanding, but instead, they are long-suffering at their own hand. For example, Troy was leveled nine times and Crete was devoured six times before those cities were finally left to rest (ignoring the lesson they are now renovated).

Of course, it wasn't easy, and still isn't. Seeing nearly everything we label human reduced to refuse and dust must have been difficult and surely perceived negatively. In reality, though, it was not negative, but reflective of our own violence against the reigning force of the physical world: life. We just didn't want to believe that we had brought it upon ourselves, and so we continued to make the same mistakes. As is typical of strong fear, we projected the cause onto Nature, blamed invented "gods," or said that it was the vengeance of God. As a result, it was, and is, referred to as "catastrophe," "destruction," "calamity," and even "the end of the world." However, it is none of these labels, if we only understand that it is the beginning of peace, prosperity and harmony as we come to know the repeated lesson we have yet to learn.


Historical Records on Renewal Cycles

One of those aspects of history we have repeatedly refused to make reference to is the written works of our ancestors the world over who have referred to such periods. Consider, for example, some of the Asian teachings on the subject, such as those in ancient China. Perished ages were called kis by the Chinese, and they number ten kis from the world's beginning until Confucius. The periods between great convulsions of Nature are discussed in the Sing-li-ta-tsiuen-chou, an ancient encyclopedia, and are called the "great year." During this "great year" the entire cosmos "winds up," and then, "in a great convulsion of Nature, the sea is carried out of its bed, mountains spring out of the ground, rivers change their course, human beings and everything are ruined and the ancient traces effaced." The Taoist scriptures speak of a time that "disturbs the regular method of heaven, comes into collision with the nature of things, prevents the accomplishment of the mysterious (operation of) heaven, scatters the herds of animals, makes the birds all sing at night, is calamitous to vegetation, and disastrous to all insects [and] the six elemental influences do not act in concord."

There are also Middle Eastern sources. Buddhism has the chapter, "World Cycles," in the Visuddhi-Magga, in which we find that, "There are three destructions: the destruction by water, the destruction by fire, the destruction by wind." The Brahmans of Hinduism called the epochs between two periods, "The Great Days," much like the Chinese. Hinduism expounds on ages, called kalpas or yugas, and about episodes which are called paralayas, in which humankind was nearly put to an end, as found in the Bhagavata Purana and others. Worldwide fire (conflagration), flood and hurricane dominate the devouring forces of each world age. Similar expositions are also found in other sources, as well.

In the Near East the picture is similar. Mazdaism, an ancient Persian religion, makes reference to ages in the Zend-Avesta. Seven world ages are discussed in the "Bhaman Yast," a book in the Zend-Avesta. Its prophet, Zarathustra, speaks about the characteristics that are manifested in the world at the end of each age.

Likewise, European sources reveal a similar understanding. According to Varro (116-27 BC), a Roman author, there were seven elapsed ages described in the annals of ancient Etruria (the believed predecessor of the Roman civilization). The Greeks had similar traditions related to them by Aristotle (384-322 BC) with words such as Kataklysmos, which means deluge, and Epyrosis, which means combustion of the world. Anaximenes and Anaximander spoke of such things in the 6th Century BC, as did Diogenes and Heraclitus in the 5th Century BC, and Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd Century BC. The Stoics, a school of Greek philosophers founded by Zeno in about 308 BC, generally believed in periodic episodes in which the world would be consumed, and a new world is founded on its ashes.

In addition, the ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts give many descriptions of cycles of the removal of civilization. Most of the sources indicate Isis, the Great Earth Mother, was responsible for restoring life. The Egyptians also believed that the precision of the equinoxes triggered the various transitional phases in both civilization and the natural world. Many other sources can be found in this region of the world.

In the Americas the idea of world ages has been preserved in very persistent traditions. The Hopi Indians have traditions which indicate: "Each successive period of development concludes with catastrophic destruction." The ancient inhabitants of Middle America were authors of Codices, annals of the past, which gave prominent place to worldwide change that decimated much of the human race and altered the face of the globe. Katuns, or calendar stones, found in Yucatan have led to statements like the following: "The most ancient of these fragments refer, in general, to great catastrophes which at intervals and repeatedly, convulsed the American continent, and of which all nations of the continent have a more or less distinct memory." In fact, the Olmecs, Toltecs, Mayans, and Aztecs erected calendar stones and monuments and conducted traditional ceremonies in attempting to predict and prevent such episodes from (re)occurring. Native American legends and traditions from the northern-most to the southern-most parts of the Americas tell a similar tale.

More recently there is the Holy Quran, the book of the Muslims. Many references to these types of periods can be found, as becomes evident, even in the titles of chapters like "The Sure Calamity" (Chapter 69), "The Overwhelming Calamity" (Chapter 88) and "The Terrible Calamity" (Chapter 101). One quote goes like this: "And what will make you comprehend what the terrible calamity is? The day on which men shall be as scattered moths, and the mountains shall be as loosened wool. When the Earth is shaken with her (violent) shaking, and the Earth brings forth her burdens." (Chap. 99:1-2 & Chap. 101:3-5). There are also various other references to events in both the past and the future when forces are unleashed against civilization and its wilderness-devouring ways.

In the Holy Bible, too, such forces are made to play prominent roles in many situations. "And what will you do in the day of visitation, and in the desolation which shall come from far? To whom will you flee for help? And where will you leave your glory?" (Isaiah 10:3). "Then the Earth shook and trembled; the foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken" (Psalms 18:7). Other related texts, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Rabbinical writings, are sources for similar statements. These are only a few examples, as we will see.


The Unlearned Lesson

Certainly, the idea of periods of the purging of civilization and the renewal of life on the Earth is far from an isolated phenomenon, but it has been lost sight of. This is understandable, because humanity could only see it all as negative. It has been seen as "destructive," and not as life-renewing, as something against humans, instead of being the representation of a law of the physical world yet to be acknowledged and understood. Often the understanding was relegated to the worlds of philosophy, mythology and religion, unlike history or science which are considered factual. Humankind cherishes history, but often lapses into collective amnesia to unwittingly disregard this so-called negative side of reality. Yet, it is only negative if we do not learn from it.

After all, it is ignoring this side of reality that continually brings this suffering upon us. Somewhere in the back of each human mind is an unconscious self-destructiveness that is a part of civilization itself (its externalized values cause this). Often, the typical defensive move has been to declare traditions, myths, legends and so forth to be the whims of fanatical unenlightened ancestors with a fervent imagination for describing local, unspectacular events as if they were universal. In the process, important facts have been overlooked, making it necessary for the human race to repeat history.

Humanity is generally self-centered in the sense that our impulse is to try and make the rest of the Universe serve our own purposes and preconceived ideas. At the same time we do not understand the Universe, and though we do our best to ignore it, we ourselves are ephemeral and expendable, because of our own shortsightedness. The result has been societies that call themselves "civilized," when the horrifying and humiliating experiences that we have repeatedly brought upon ourselves have been trying to teach us that we must work with Nature, and the reasons why.

Nothing in this context has received any real scrutiny without first assuming that the past three centuries are the standard with which to judge. Three centuries of relatively slow gradual earth- movements and a history which deals mostly with humans against humans has been the perspective. When scholars study the archeology of a culture that has suddenly disappeared or drastically changed, the immediate reflex is to suppose another culture came and conquered or displaced the former residents. Nearly all documents that deal with writing history founded on this type of evidence are, at first, riddled with "possibly," "perhaps," "maybe" or some other such word. When history begins to be written for a nation, or on a worldwide basis, however, the first things to go are such words. What follows is often downright orthodox fallacy based on hypothetical suppositions and expectations.

Most archeologists and geologists take it for granted that things have always been as they are. However, we have no right to assume that unique events have not occurred, but must be alert to recognize them if recorded. Unfortunately, we see only what we know, so the probability is that if faced with the evidence of such an event we would fail to observe it. As it has been said, "It is what we think we know that prevents us from learning."

The truth, however, can only surface when we let the facts state what is real, and disregard predetermined theories. Are there periods on Earth that close vast eras in the pages of history? To really examine this possibility it is necessary to reach outside of theories and expectations. Radiocarbon dates give us one of the more accurate perspectives on the beginning and ending of cultures, civilizations and settlements. In order for us to be objective about our perspective, we must plot these dates on a histogram to see if there are peak periods in the data. Then, with the perspective of the written history and archeological evidence of the time, we will know just what is the truth.


A histogram is presented that plots the radiocarbon dates of the ends of cultures, and settlements (cities, towns, villages, etc.) to the nearest 50 years. This histogram shows that there are cycles of approximately 200-year intervals when cultures and settlements around the world come to an end. However, the radiocarbon dates reveal peaks where most events occur within 50 years. Just as could be expected from the destabilizing of physical forces, the events reach a climax.

A combination of archeological evidence, ancient and historical writings, mythology, weather changes, natural disasters, and solar activity brings about a compelling new look at history and prehistory. The new model of the Earth (the Field-dynamical Earth Model; FEM) has continually played a part in history, and the people of those times commented on the observed phenomena, which they often attributed to divine intervention.

We have put ourselves under the double-edged sword of not comprehending the lessons of our past, and not wanting to face the reality of our misguided actions in the present. The lesson we have failed to understand is that civilizations have passed on continually as a consequence of the cyclical renewal of wilderness, which supports the dynamics of FEM. Through the creation of life crises by civilizations there came the destabilizing of the dynamics of FEM and its linkages, causing disaster to strike.

Even human conflict, partially triggered by biometeorological effects, as well as social injustices, brings about the same ends: the collapse of those things that destroy life and the renewal of wilderness. This is, in fact, why history continually shows that nomads (those closer to Nature) are favored by the events that transpire, and often help destroy great civilizations. Examples include the Vandals, Huns, Mongols, bedouins of the Arab-Islamic conquests, Aztecs, Incas, and numerous others. Furthermore, those nomads who then became "civilized" (destroyed Nature) were themselves destroyed. Life is so much a part of the cosmos that we even play a part in bringing it back by destroying civilizations that have no regard for maintaining wildlife.

Topics presented in this tome range from what led to the downfall of Mesopotamia, the Indus Civilization, Ancient Egypt, and Ancient China to the ravages of the bubonic plague, the Spanish conquests of the Americas, and a myriad of other history-transforming events. In the process of examining these events, ranging from 1600 BC to AD 1600, periods of global change become obvious. This is confirmed further by plotting the radiocarbon dates of the ends of a multitude of cultures and sites on a histogram, as well as in the writings of each period.

The Vital Vastness, Volumes One and Two (especially Volume Two) discuss the solar-lunar-FEM linkage, and how this linkage triggers geophysical phenomena. Here, they are shown to play a major role in human history. Consider the discussion of one such historical cycle of which there are nine others between 1600 BC and AD 1600: see the cycle 1050 to 1250 BC


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  • Another City has Been Discovered Submerged in the Mediteranean Sea. The ancient city, known either as Leukaspis or Antiphrae, was hidden for about sixteen centuries after it was nearly wiped out by a Fourth Century tsunami that demolished the area. This is yet another city destroyed in the 250-450 AD renewal cycle discussed in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. See the Physorg.com article.

  • A Great and Advanced Civlization Once Existed in the Amazon -- A Place Where Many Archaeologists Thought that None Existed. It may have even consisted of at least 20 million people, and it seems to have become extinct as the result of the Spanish conquest in the sixteenth century, making it part of the 1400-1600 AD renewal cycle. See the Washington Post article.

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  • A Newly Discovered Mayan Pyramid may be the World's Largest Man-Made Structure, Even Larger than the Pyramid of Giza, in Egypt. The pyramid was last occupied around 100 AD, making it part of the 0-200 AD renewal cycle discussed in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. As is typical of ancient structures it was so buried in Guatamala's jungle no one noticed that it was man-made until now. See the AOL news release, and also see the CNN video report.

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  • Its Seems that a Super Tsunami Hit New Zealand in the 15th Century, as Part of the 1400-1600 AD Renewal Cycle. It is also mentioned in the mythology of the native Maoris. See the Stuff.co.nz Opinion article.

  • Beware! The History of Downfall of the Athenians Sounds Much Like Today's World. The end of the Athenians, in the 4th Century BC, has a very simliar ring to it -- it occurred during a crippling economic downturn, while politicians committed financial crimes, sent its armies to fight unpopular foreign wars and struggled to cope with a surge in immigration. As with so many facets of history this lesson has been ignored. The fall of Athens occurred in the 450-250 BC renewal cycle discussed in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. See the Physorg.com book review.

  • A Roman Fortress and Shrine were Discovered in England. The site was last occupied around 410 AD, which puts its end in the 250-450 AD renewal cycle discussed in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. See the Digitaljournal.com article.

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  • Different Characteristics of Civilizations Attrack Storms. Urbanization increases the Monsoon, large dams alter extreme weather, and deserts are spreading, all of which are typical of past civilizations that collapsed.

  • Highly Advanced Societies Existed in the Amazon until the Spaniards Came. This would make their civilizations downfall in the 1400-1600 AD renewal cycle discussed in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About; adding yet more sites to the numerous others that were destroyed in that cycle. See the Sciencedaily.com news release.

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  • Angkor's Downfall was also Accompanied by a Shift in Climate -- Among Other Things. This was discussed in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. A new study confirms that it played a role in the abandonment of this vast metroplis. See the ABC.net.au news release.

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  • A new study shows that 80% of the wars fought between 1950 and 2000 were in the most biologically diverse and threatened areas on Earth. As was presented in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About, unbeknownst to those fighting in wars, they are, in fact, reclaiming the areas for the return of wilderness. This study confirms this perspective, as these areas have and are returning to wilderness. If not then there will be more wars in these biodiverse areas. See the Physorg.com article and the Conservation International article. This also occurred in Mesoamerica. [source: Hanson, T, et al. (2009) Warfare in Biodiversity Hotspots. Conservation Biology published online].

  • Here's an Example of that Very Process -- The War in Iraq Stopped Saddam Hussein's Draining of the Marshes, and They are Now being Renewed with Wildlife. See the NASA Earth Observatory article.

  • A new culture is unearthed in Mesoamerica. A number of artifacts and a pyramid are among the signs of an unknown culture that collapsed. See the Nationalgeographic.com news release.

  • More facts are beginning to surface that civilizations can be doomed by natural disasters. Such is the case of a civilization in Peru that existed 3,600 years ago that was struck by earthquakes, floods and blowing sand. The civilization is yet another one that collapsed in the renewal cycle of 1600 to 1400 BC, presented in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. See the CTV.ca article or the News24.com article.

  • Climate change was one of the precipitating causes for the downfall of the Roman and Byzantine Empires in the Eastern Mediterranean. The civilizations came to an end in the 550-750 AD renewal cycle, and as in the book In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About one of the causes of many cultures collapse was climate change. Climate change occurs in all of the renewal cycles, which accompany civilizations' downfalls. Here a new study reaffirms that there was a long dry spell. See the Sciencedaily.com article.

  • An ancient city is found deep in the Amazon, and maybe part of a legendary culture of white-skinned people called the "Cloud People". As is typical of ancient sites, they are found covered by dirt, mud, or ash, and vegetation, while this one was swallowed up in dense jungle vegetation. They collapsed in the 1400-1600 AD renewal cycle from disease and war when the Spaniards came in the 16th century. See the Dailymail.co.uk news item.

  • A Pre-Incan Temple is uncovered in Peru. It appeares to have been a culture that ended in the 1050-1250 AD renewal cycle. See the BBC news brief and another BBC.co.uk article.

  • The ends of Chinese dynasties and other cultures have been acompanied by climate change. See the Physorg.com news release.

  • Three older tsunami events have been identified, one in Sumatra and another in Thailand that appear to be dated to the 1400-1600 AD renewal cycle, and an older one in Thailand appears to be dated to the 200-0 BC renewal cycle. They are forerunners of the 2004 tsunami that hit near the same region. [sources: Monecke, K., et al (2008) A 1,000-year sediment record of tsunami recurrence in northern Sumatra. Nature 455, 1232-1234 and Jankaew, K., ewt al (2008) Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand. Nature 455, 1228-1231].

  • Cities are Being Swallowed by Sand Dunes, Again. NASA has seen sand dunes encroaching on cities, and like the past, the sand dunes will eventually swallow up the cities, and Nature will regain her foothold. This has happened many times in human history, as discussed in In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. See the NASA Story.

  • Another Lost City Found Near Machu Picchu in the Andes. A city was found using instruments to look under the vast jungle cover. As tyical of cities from the past, it was so covered with vegetation no one knew it was there until they looked below the jungle cover. See the CNN.com story.

  • The Old Kingdom of Egypt was so Devastated that Virtually Nothing Remains of it Today -- Part of the reason is that there may have been a series of droughts. See the The Hearald (United Kingdom) story.

  • City Found in the Amazon. A city was found in the Upper Xingu region of Brazil, a part of the Amazon, and the city appears to have been inhabited mostly from 1200 to 1600 AD. This is yet another site that ended in the 1400 to 1600 AD period, along with many others worldwide, discussed in In Defense of Nature -- The History Nobody Told You About. This was reported in the journal Science [Heckenberger, et al., vol. 301 (5640), pages 1710-1714, 2003]. Furthermore, this is more evidence that a global climate change occurred at the time.

  • The human impact of growing urban sprawl can only really be appreciated when seen from space. Take a look at urban sprawl -- destined to get worse in the future -- with the links in this NASA news release.

  • Some ancient archeological sites can only be seen from space. As discussed in the book, In Defense of Nature, this is the way most archeological sites are left, covered by soil and life. This was also briefly discussed in the web page In Defense of Nature. See the the full exn.ca story.





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