Dinosaur Extinctions: No Asteroid or Comet Impact Here


"That expectations color the progress of science is widely known and widely ignored."

L.M. Van Valen. "Catastrophes, Expectations, and the Evidence."
Paleobiology 10(1):121, 1984


Keywords: Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Late Cretaceous, dinosaurs, bolide impact, impact theory, volcanic theory, mass extinctions, Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM), ionizing radiation and extinction

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. The plates that are mentioned in the excerpts are not included, but may be included at a later time. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.



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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Theories


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Introduction

About 65 million years ago some event took place that wiped out more than half of all life on Earth. In addition to this mass extinction there was a major face-lift for the Earth as a planet. The continents were shoved to new locations, and inland seas moved on and off the continents, as major ridge expansion took place, particularly in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In the process there was major mountain building, volcanic eruptions, and some places sunk beneath the sea, while others rose from the sea. There is evidence of massive destabilization of the oceans and atmosphere. Powerful storms wrecked havoc as indicated by vigorous erosion and greatly increased continental weathering. Some elements, known as isotopes, show drastic shifts in abundance. Masses of sand, clay, and mud deposited layers everywhere, while other areas show missing sedimentary layers. The oceans show rapid desalination events, temperature transitions, and chemical changes.

The Late Cretaceous was the last for the dinosaur, and its close was the most catastrophic of any period in the history of life on Earth. More than one half of all the species on Earth became extinct. In some places 75% to 90% of the life forms vanished from the scene never to be seen again in the fossil record. With the close of the Cretaceous there came the wholesale extinction of large marine creatures (Plesiosaurs, Mosasaurs and Icthyosaurs), flying reptiles (Pterosaurs), ancestors of the Chambered Nautilus (Ammonites), Scleractinian and Hermatypic Corals, shellfish (Bivalves, Inoceramids, Rudists, Gastropods and Echnoids), chalk-forming creatures (Coccolithophorids, Planktonic Foraminifera, Beleminites, large Benthic Foraminifera and Radiolaria), and the Dinosaurs. Here was the end of one of the most successful life sytems in all of Earth history. What was it that overwhelmed the Earth?



Theories


Impact Theory


Suddenly an asteroid or a comet pierces the atmosphere, igniting a huge fireball that lights the sky in a huge blast. Intense blistering heat from the blast ignites rapidly spreading wildfires. The object smashes into the ocean near a continent, ejecting massive amounts of dust and water into the atmosphere. Within a short time the dust encircles the Earth, plunging it into a thick black darkness. Every bit of vegetation withers, followed by a famine that affected all the animals (except scavengers and decomposers), causing mass extinctions. With the Sun's rays blocked, an extreme cold eventually envelopes the Earth. After some time the dust falls, but much of the water still remains aloft, causing a greenhouse effect that heats the Earth by as much as 10o Celsius (18o Fahrenheit). Acid plummets to the ground as the energy combined nitrogen and oxygen into nitric acid. So goes the theory that an asteroid or a comet (collectively referred to as a bolide) hit the Earth at the close of the Cretaceous.
(from Tome Three of The Vital Vastness -- Volume One).

This theory was suggested because of the high iridium level noted at many locations at the K-T boundary. The K-T Boundary is the transition point from the Cretaceous, the last time the dinosaurs lived, to the Tertiary, the time when mammals began to dominate the land. The impact theory is the most widely held theory of the event that closed the Cretaceous. There are many facts that support this theory. However, unlike the media has been pushing, there are many facts that contradict this theory, and indicate something else has to be responsible, if not completely, then at least partially.



Facts Supporting the Impact Theory


  1. Iridium was found in many sediments of the Cretaceous. Iridium is a metal that is rare on Earth, except in the interior, but is a common component of meteors and asteroids.

  2. Shocked minerals (quartz and shistovite), typical of an impact were found.

  3. A crater (or a structure that looks like a crater) was found along the coast of Yucatan, called Chicxulub.

  4. Evidence of acid rain was found in a number of rock samples.

  5. Carbon soot, indicative of wildfires, was found.

  6. Temperature data shows that there was a temperature drop and later a temperature rise.

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Outstanding Problems of the Impact Theory



  1. Other impacts (i.e., craters) during the Mesozoic (the era of the dinosaurs reign) did not cause any associated extinctions, mass extinctions or otherwise.

  2. Amphibians (e.g., frogs, salamanders, etc.) are vulernable to the slightest envornmental changes survived the event -- their eggs were laid in mud or water which are good buffers against ionizing radiation, but not by an impact scenario.

  3. The impact was supposed to be the site of Chicxulub, Yucatan, and now a multi-ringed crater is noted in the North Sea of approximately the same age. Yet, the Southern Hemisphere was just as devastated as the Northern Hemisphere. Both supposed impacts are not even considered to be geoblemes -- ejections from the Earth -- which is likely what they are. See Planetary Ejections and Cratering.

  4. The site of the proposed impact at Chicxulub, Yucatan, as part of the Caribbean Plate, was undergoing uplift, and plate rotation from the Pacific to the Atlantic during the Cretaceous, which is extremely difficult to reconcile with an impact.

  5. Recent well coring at the Chicxulub (e.g., well log No.6) indicates that the structure may be volcanic or a cryptoexplosive geobleme (a structure caused by an explosion ejection from the Earth).

  6. Iridium is found almost globally and is found in strata that is not the same date everywhere, when it should be found mostly in the Yucatan region and bare the same date. The greatest abundance of iridium was found on the Hess Rise in the mid-Pacific, some 10,000 kilometers (6,200 miles) away from Chicxulub. In Raton Basin, New Mexico, the iridium was deposited during normal polarity of the geomagnetic field, not the reversed polarity of other sites. Many irregularities in iridium occur worldwide (by orders of magnitude).

  7. Some evidence indicates that the shocked quartz did not originate by impact, but may be volcanic or tectonic in origin.

  8. Some areas, such as at Gubbio, Italy, display a long interval of shocked minerals which is bisected by the boundary. Also at Gubbio, there are five iridium peaks, indicating the need for five impacts, and therefore, five craters with no other impact structure of the right age (with the possible exception of Manson Crater in Iowa). Similar extended zones can be found in the Pacific, Atlantic, Denmark, Spain, France, Germany and New Zealand.

  9. In most situations the iridium and other noble metals are associated with organic compounds (kerogen and organic carbon or coal) from dead biomass, which is likely to be the source of the metals.

  10. The abundances of noble metals is more consistent with earthly compositions than extraterrestrial sources at many sites. Also other metals typical of meteoritic materials are missing in some sites with iridium or the ratios are not typical of impact debris. Moreover, the shocked quartz at some sites is more consistent with water transport (ocean erosion) rather than atmospheric (as would occur with impact).

  11. Other times of impact did not cause such extensive mass extinctions.

  12. An impact is theoretically less likely to initiate widespread tectonic activity, and sea level rise, which occurred at the end of the Cretaceous.

  13. The climatic shift should have went from a drastic drop in temperature (with sunlight blocked) to progressively hot temperatures (the Greenhouse Effect). Notwithstanding, the temperature went from warm to progressively colder temperatures with only a short period with a temperature rise. The atmosphere never rebounded, but was colder than it had been and would remain colder than any time throughout the Cretaceous. In the Cretaceous there was no glacial cover anywhere, and the Arctic regions were much warmer than today with places like Alaska having temperatures similar to San Diego, and the treeline and temperate species were much farther north than at present. After the boundary the climate is much more like that of today, with glaciers developing in the following periods (beginning in the Paleocene).

  14. The mass extinctions of the time do not fit the impact theory: (a) The extinctions were not instantaneous and were selective. (b) Many species were in decline before the time of the proposed impact. (c) If the Yucatan region were the impact site then the greatest mass extinctions should be in southeastern North America, Central America, and northeastern South America, but were not (it seems that the greatest dinosaur fossil graveyard is in the Gobi Desert, on the other side of the Earth, and most extinctions were along mid-latitudes, not the tropics). (d) The huge dust and water vapor cloud should have caused plant extinctions the most, but it did not, and equatorial species should have been hit the worst, but it was mid-latitude species that were affected the most, and most mass extinctions were animals. (e) Photosynthetic nannoplankton survived into the Tertiary, and Cretaceous and Tertiary species even coexist in land-based marine sections of the Tertiary. (f) Tropical insects should have become extinct, but persist into the Tertiary. (g) The dinosaurs appear to have undergone gradual extinction in at least some locations.

  15. High-energy terrestrial explosions, called geoblemes or cryptoexplosions, have not been studied, nor have laboratory simulations been tested. Therefore, much of the evidence for impact is somewhat biased by not considering the evidence in light of all the possibilities. For example, a number of journal articles have shown that the craters on Mars and other planets are dynamically related to the core, and therefore, are internal in origin. Also, the structural similarities of multi-ringed craters with a central peak are too uniform, regardless of size and proposed angle of impact, for them to be impact craters; laboratory experiments show different structures for different angles and impactor size. This suggests that multi-ringed craters with a central peak, like that of the Chicxulub, are internally produced.

  16. Amino acids typical of organic-rich meteors and asteroids were found in Late Cretaceous formations. However, they occur over a long period of time and show no signs of being burnt by entry into the atmosphere, which is not typical of an extraterrestrial source.

  17. Other times of proposed impacts did not cause mass extinctions.

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The Volcanic Theory



The impact theory has been debated with a scenario of huge volcanic eruptions. Like the impact theory, the volcanic event could have brought about drastic weather changes that included a darkened sky, climatic cooling and acid rain. Both iridium and shocked minerals can be caused by volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the hot lava could cause widespread wildfires.

Near the end of the Cretaceous, India had vast lava flows, known as the Deccan Traps. These lava flows covered an area the size of France. The Deccan Traps were the outcome of the largest volcanic catastrophe since the beginning of the Mesozoic.

Areas in the Pacific Basin, northeastern Asia, Peru, and the Western Interior of North America also had a fairly high level of volcanic eruptions. However, volcanic activity had already been spent by the end of the Cretaceous. Eruptions in Britain (British Igneous Tertiary Province), Baffin Island, Canada, and northern and western Greenland began shortly after the end of the Cretaceous.

In some ways the volcanic theory can explain many of the facts that the impact theory cannot. There are a number of iridium peaks with irregular distribution, which can be explained by the fact that the eruptions covered a longer time-span than an impact. It may also account for some of the selective extinctions.



Outstanding Problems of the Volcanic Theory


  1. It is very difficult to reconcile lava flows in India, which was surrounded by seas, with being responsible for global wildfires. This seems especially so when considering that the continents were being pushed and inland seas were either forming or retreating due to major ridge expansion.

  2. Basalt lava flows can produce iridium, but none has been found in the Deccan Traps themselves. Furthermore, it is difficult to imagine volcanic eruptions sending iridium globally.

  3. Shocked quartz can form from violent eruptions, but usually the grains are so large that they do not travel very far. Again, quartz was found at a number of sites.

  4. Volcanic eruption cannot explain the sharp boundaries at some sites.

  5. Some extinctions, such as the global extinction of the dinosaurs, seem impossible to reconcile with just volcanic eruptions.

  6. The massive climate changes, including temperature and ocean perturbations, cannot be accounted for by the volcanic eruptions of the time.

  7. At least three other times of massive flood basalts are not connected with mass extinctions.

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Other Theories



A number of other theories have been proposed over the years but most have since been discarded by the scientific community. In most cases these theories mostly focus on what could have caused the dinosaurs' extinction, but little is devoted to the other extinctions and the massive environmental changes of the boundary. All but one of these theories fails to explain the selective character of the extinctions in terms of the species involved, and none can explain their geographic segregation.

One theory suggests that various terrestrial stresses, including lower sea level, global temperature changes, and increased volcanic activity, were responsible. Contradicting this scenario is the fact that these events occurred over a greater time span, and equally dramatic changes at others times did not coexist with mass extinctions of such magnitude.

Another theory that continually reappears and can explain the selective character of the extinctions involves radiation. This theory continually reappears because there is evidence of its effects in the fossil record. For example, Upper Cretaceous fossils from Nemegt Valley, Mongolia, had greater radioactivity levels than fossils of upper and lower strata in the same location. Many fossils suggest the effects of radiation, such as mummified dinosaurs, fossilized delicate dinosaur embryos, and pine cones without any signs of predation, decay, or the effects of insects, scavengers or decomposers. Even preserved amino acids may have been discovered, though there is a debate that amino acids could not survive such an extended time period, but if they were buried and the environment irradiated they could survive.

A generally overlooked fact is that mass extinctions are eventually followed by mass speciations, not just during this event, but throughout evolutionary history. Again, this suggests radiation. According to molecular evolution, radiation could split chromosomes, and through the effects of recombination, crossing-over, and aberrations, as well as RNA and DNA mutation, they would be shifted into a different order, hence new species (or in the case of extinction, radiation poisoning or unworkable mutation). Furthermore, research over the past 80 years has shown that nothing is more capable of causing genetic mutation than radiation. This could explain many other facts.

The big problem for the radiation theory is that there is no confirmed source for the radiation. Theories have suggested a nearby supernova (exploding star), a super solar flare, and a super solar flare during a magnetic reversal. However, a supernova would leave behind a molecular cloud (nebula), but none has been detected in a region near Earth. The super solar flare would not cause a major problem as the Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere (a magnetic sphere around the Earth resulting from the effects of the geomagnetic field) would deflect the flare. When a super solar flare occurs along with a magnetic reversal, the magnetosphere no longer being protective, the possibility looks promising. However, no known such event has occurred to compare it to. Or is there some other source for the radiation that is yet unknown?

Another finding that is still unresolved is that cratering occurs in cycles or periods of about 30 million years. After examining craters of known age (within 5 million years) the record of cratering shows clusters or cycles. In order to explain this a companion star to our Sun, with an elliptical orbit and a period of 30 million years, that dislodges comets from the Oort cloud was hypothesized. This companion may be to faint or dark for us to see. Another suggestion was that it is a tenth planet, the so-called Planet X, that dislodges the comets from the Oort cloud. Others say that it is an intraterrestrial phenomena, rather than extraterrestrial. Others claim there are no cycles, but statistical analysis does not disprove that cycles exist, but does indicate that they are highly probable. Today the subject has been somewhat ignored and remains unresolved by the majority of the scientific community.

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What Really Happened -- Excerpts from The Vital Vastness -- Volume One: Our Living Earth


The Vital Vastness offers an explanation of what really took place at this time by presenting a new model of the Earth, called the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM) (use the link for a description of this model). An understanding of this model would have led to predicting the evidence that was discovered. In fact, it turns out that this theory is the only theory to encompass all of the empirical evidence. Here are some excerpts from the book on the subject (also see the related topic on the evolution web page).

The most basic reason for the deficiencies of these theories is that the new Earth model, FEM, is not yet known to scientists. They are only considering the facts based on a solid iron-nickel core model of the Earth. The present model includes the assumption that the biosphere is protected from radiation due to the effects of the magnetic field, magnetosphere and atmosphere. As a result, theorists do not recognize the other possible mechanisms that could explain the evidence. Even the possibility of ejection from the Earth could create the crater in Chicxulub [see the web page on ejection]. This means we are looking in the wrong place when we search for Earth-crossing asteroids.

However, unlike the other theories, the effects of FEM account for all of the observations. For one, the Fields interact with the Earth's surface, bringing into being the mid-ocean ridges, rifts and so on (plate boundaries), and are the mechanism behind plate tectonics and plate motion. This was discussed briefly in Tome One, and will be addressed more in depth in a later section of Tome Three. Polar reversals become as easy to understand as reversing the direction of the coil on an electromagnet (reversed polarity of the Field, not core-mantle coupling offsetting the dynamo; see Tome Five of volume Two). The mid-latitude Fields release great masses of ionized particles, which results in first producing shocked quartz, dust and spherules, and immediately following, strewn iridium. These features appear globally because the Fields are worldwide. The ionizing radiation (by-products of hydrogen fusion) that is released by the Fields causes huge climate and ocean disturbances, offsets element balances (carbon, oxygen and other isotopes), starts wildfires (microwaves drying vegetation and lightning igniting them) and precipitates carbon (soot) and hydrocarbons, produces acid rain, and has selective effects on extinction and brings into being new species (genetic mutation).

As a result of various observations, a number of theories have been proposed that included the effects of ionizing radiation. One theory claimed that a nearby exploding star, a supernova, was the culprit. Another was a super solar flare.

Meanwhile, the effects of radiation are clearly manifested in many fossil remains. Trachodon, a dinosaur discovered in a Kansas rock formation in 1908, can now be found in the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Mummified, its body remains fairly intact, shows no signs of predation, and the impression of its skin shows perfect detail, lacking significant signs of decomposition. Likewise, proteins were found in the bones of one of the largest dinosaurs known, Seismosaurus or "ground-shaker," and are also the oldest preserved protein. Considering the possible effects of radiation, one must wonder if Seismosaurus is such a large dinosaur because of radiation-induced mutation. Other amino acids were also found in Late Cretaceous fossils.

Both finds are seriously questioned by scientists because protein is normally incapable of surviving such a long time. However, irradiated amino acids could be preserved, but are not even being considered. Today there are meats and other foods preserved by irradiating them, because the radiation destroys decomposers.

The Polish-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition discovered a number of interesting finds. Upper Cretaceous dinosaur and turtle bones from Nemegt Valley were unearthed that exhibited high radioactivity. A scientist comments on them by comparing these fossils with those of the period following the Cretaceous, known as the Paleocene:

"It is, however, interesting that the radioactivity of the bones from Tsagan Hushu in Nemegt Valley is approximately seven times higher in Cretaceous specimens than in the younger Paleocene bones collected in the same area. This indicates that not only the locality of deposition of the bones but also the age of fossils influences their levels of radioactivity."

In August of 1971, this expedition, while in the Gobi Desert, uncovered the skeletons of two dinosaurs, Veliciropator and Protoceratops, still locked in mortal combat. Something very sudden had to overcome them or obviously both would have defended themselves against a common threat. Furthermore, both had their backs arched as if something had severely cramped their back muscles. Radiation affects high atomic-number elements more. The most abundant high atomic-number elements in biological organisms are calcium and potassium. These two elements are utilized in muscle function, and ionizing radiation may have caused extreme cramping of their muscles, arching their backs. Some have claimed that the tendons tighten after death producing this arching. Regardless, something had to overwhelm these dinosaurs very quickly in order for them to still be locked in combat.

A number of fossils show high levels of radioactivity, especially if made up of bones rather than some other material (calcium is a high atomic-number element). Fish bones can be considered an exception due to the radiation-buffering effects of water (not necessarily uranium-rich percolating groundwater and fine-grained sediments as proposed). Likewise, uranium-bearing bones may be due to an irradiated environment, which the animals lived in before their final extinction. This conclusion is suggested when one considers that those dinosaurs which show greater diversity -- skull mutation -- (Ceratopsians and Hadrosaurs) and surface-dwelling, air-breathing marine creatures (Plesiosaurs and Mosasaurs) dominate the samples of uranium-bearing bones.

A number of dinosaur embryos have been discovered. It is very difficult to imagine the preservation of such delicate specimens under normal conditions, but it could be expected of irradiated specimens. Though not a popular theory, it has already been suggested that the presence of high concentrations of radioactive minerals in fossil bones of Late Cretaceous age were the result of a simultaneous increase in background radiation. Fluctuations in the deposition of calcium carbonate (chalk), calcite and carbon dioxide (carbonates), and in the levels of isotopes are also indicative of ionizing radiation. Likewise, there are a large number of carbonatite deposits around the world at the time of the boundary. The origin of carbonatites, transformed sediments of calcium carbonate rocks (calcite and dolomite), is obscure, and could be the result of irradiated reefs and corals. The selectivity of the extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous also shows the effects of radiation released by FEM and will be discussed later.

Because the Fields control plate tectonics there should also be a correlation between seafloor spreading, sea level fluctuations and extinctions. The K/T boundary corresponds to a short-term maximum in sea level (eustatic transgressions), which supports the idea that the extinctions and a pulse of seafloor spreading took place at the same time. Further support for this correlation is that other times of mass extinction are associated with sea level changes, as well.

If the Fields were situated as they are today, in the oceans, we would expect evidence of highly disturbed oceans in the late Cretaceous. Studies indicate rapid water stratification, ventilation and temperature changes. Dark sediments (laminated, organic-rich shales) were deposited on a base of high organic carbon that is known to have originated from the open ocean (pelagic). A number of different sets of data indicate massive destabilization of the ocean to an unusual magnitude. Rapid fluctuations in isotopic marine deposits reflect catastrophic mixing of previously stagnant oceans. Both marine and continental sections demonstrate that the extinctions were often accompanied by changes in sedimentation that display abrupt coarsening (clastic wedge). Much of what is recorded at the boundary could be due to a transition from a Cretaceous equator-dominated to a Tertiary polar-dominated ocean circulation system. Mid-latitudes were affected the most, and there was an abrupt lowering of the surface salinity of the world's oceans. Lowered salinity occurred because ionizing radiation, which is a chemical catalyst (Na, Cl and NaCl have high ionization potentials, especially in aqueous solutions), was released through the Fields in the oceans. All of these observations support what would be expected of FEM.

The Fields control weather and the evidence demonstrates massive changes there too. Giant storms left behind the signs of dramatically increased erosion and runoff. Likewise, the sedimentary, biological and geochemical data suggest massive destabilization of the climate. The end-Cretaceous has even been compared to what would follow an instantaneous discharge of more than the world's nuclear weapons stockpile. Both the Fields and nuclear weapons release a similar type of ionizing radiation into the atmosphere. In fact, it was the scientific study of the K/T Boundary that led to the nuclear winter scenario, which essentially has the same climatic effects. Intense, sustained ionization events, whether nuclear, cosmic, solar or FEM, cause a global weather impact.

Nitric oxide is produced as a by-product of ionization, and it depletes the ozone layer, allowing solar and cosmic radiation to enter with additional mutagenic potential. Furthermore, the nitric oxide would undergo chemical reactions that produce nitric acid, resulting in acid rain. At the close of the Cretaceous the evidence indicates a sudden and sharp drop in temperature, as well as acid rain, which could be predicted from the effects of FEM.

Clay mineral associations reveal a "major geodynamic disruption" characterized by tectonic instability and sea-level changes. These events occurred prior to the boundary and the iridium excess. On the Walvis Ridge an abundance of a mineral (illite) indicates active uplift and erosion. The Maud Rise and Walvis Ridge display sediments associated with volcanic activity (smectite). A number of sections show deeply weathered soils indicative of a highly destabilized climate (detrital kaolinite).

Due to ionizing radiation we could also expect elements normally suspended in the atmosphere to be affected. A major carbon-isotope event (depleted 12C and enhanced 13C) occurred at the boundary, followed by a negative excursion at the very earliest of the next period (early Paleocene). Radiation increases the production of carbon isotopes in both the environment and biological materials, and this took place. Moreover, a shift to lighter organic carbon isotopes was found in marine sediments from the south Atlantic, Israel, Tunisia, and the north Pacific. Carbon isotope shifts such as these suggest biological productivity was depressed following the boundary.

Along with the extinction and sedimentary (biostratigraphic and stratigraphic) layers there are ash falls, soot and variations in the production of organic carbon. It has been suggested that this carbon fluctuation was the result of wildfires caused by an asteroid's fireball or by India's volcanics, but neither is capable of producing a global distribution. Reentering ejecta would produce heat radiation, but at the lower limit for igniting solid wood. However, it could dry the vegetation and lightning could then start the wildfire. Some sites do not have the evidence expected from a global fire, and have hydrocarbon (petroleum-like) characteristics. They display a distribution that reflects FEM; for instance, high levels are noted in New Zealand (East Australian Field) and Denmark (North Polar Field), not Italy (not near any Field). Furthermore, carbon studies contradict the hypothesis that the carbon originated from a giant forest fire and are not typical of extraterrestrial material, but are like earthly types.

Atmospheric carbon and hydrocarbon precipitation, and wildfires occur after the Earth is affected by ionizing radiation, as for example during a nuclear explosion. Hydrogen and carbon combine into substances similar to petroleum, called hydrocarbons, which could ignite, producing other constituents of the K/T-boundary layer (spherules, soot and wildfires). Derivation of the soot from fuel burning could not be ruled out by isotopic and other data. The particle size distribution of the soot is, again, similar to a nuclear winter smoke cloud. Specific hydrocarbon compounds (polyaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soot are the only indication that it is strictly wildfires (organic source), but the evidence is inconclusive. However, these hydrocarbons, too, can be produced by an irradiated atmosphere (due to the polymerization of methane in the atmosphere).

There is 300 times more charcoal above the boundary than in it, indicating a prolonged production. Increased charcoal production can result from either an increase or decrease in atmospheric oxygen (O2), due to either increased ignition or less efficient combustion. An ionized atmosphere would result in less atmospheric oxygen (O2). The correlation of carbon with noble metals and other constituents of the boundary may simply be due to fuel combustion (coal and/or hydrocarbons) and plant ash. Therefore, an impact(s) and/or volcanic eruption(s) are not necessary even for these constituents.

An event that first dries the vegetation is necessary for the global extent of the wildfires. A very effective agent for drying vegetation is microwaves, which could be produced by ionizing radiation reacting with the atmosphere and lightning (whistlers). These conditions would be present as the result of the dynamics of FEM. An unusual negative excursion of oxygen isotopes (18O) occurs at, or shortly after, the boundary, which could be produced by ionizing radiation. All of these observed effects and their global distribution are readily explainable by FEM with its worldwide distribution of ionizing radiation. Further conformation of this is the fact that the composition of the iridium in the boundary is more like the manganese nodules of a seabed. Every fact compels us to accept FEM as the Earth model, while the other theories are inconsistent with the full range of facts.

Even polar wander, apparent in the Pacific Plate from the mid-Cretaceous to early Tertiary, suggests FEM. The path indicates an uneven, rapid polar wander with a sharp bend occurring at the end of the Cretaceous (Normal Polarity Superchron). This observation can be explained by "time-varying non-dipole geomagnetic fields" which vary significantly with time. The Fields are time-varying, which would resolve the polar wander record, because polar wander sometimes occurs very rapidly (see the discussions in Tome Five of Volume Two on polar reversals and wandering).

Mass extinctions and evolution with their nonrandom patterns and "missing links" can easily be understood, as well. Mass extinctions are now known to be very selective, and are not related to an organism's ability to survive. Furthermore, it is the organisms proven to be very capable of adaptation, which have been around the longest (older families), that typically disappear at such times.

Meanwhile, it has long been recognized that small changes at the genetic level can cause extinctions and produce new species. One theorist called them "hopeful monsters," because many of the same species could have similar mutants and still be capable of reproduction. More than three-quarters of a century in genetic research has shown that the most consistent and efficient means of mutation producing new species or subspecies is at the genetic level. Of all the possible ways available for producing genetic mutations (including chromosome aberrations, crossing-over and recombining, and DNA and RNA mutation) none is more pervasive, uniform and perpetuating than the effects produced by ionizing radiation. Chromosomes are known to break and then recombine, producing a totally new organism, while the original organism becomes "extinct."

A scientist looking into the process of evolution indicates genetic changes that alter development are responsible for the transitions observed: "Indeed, if we do not invoke discontinuous change by small alteration in rates of development, I do not see how most major evolutionary transitions can be accomplished at all." This is why patterns of mutation are not random and are reflected in what has been called "evolutionary divergence," or diversity in types of species. It is uniform rates of change at the genetic level that bring about the patterns observed. Ionizing radiation is ideal for this very thing.

Animal tissues that contain elements with a fairly high atomic number, such as calcium, absorb more radiation than do soft tissues composed of less dense material. As a result, extinctions should show a relationship with organisms composed of greater amounts of the denser elements. Calcium-bearing (calcareous) plankton, shellfish, corals, open nest egg-laying animals, and animals with large skeletons would be prime candidates for mass extinction. Testimony of this relationship is witnessed throughout the K/T boundary region of the fossil record, as well as other times of mass extinction.

Cretaceous marine extinctions offer a compelling example of the effects of ionizing radiation. Calcium-bearing, floating and drifting aquatic organisms (calcareous plankton: foraminifera and coccolithophorids) were the most deeply affected with widespread mass extinctions. In fact, so widespread were they that this was the first compelling evidence that led geologists to admit a catastrophe had occurred.

Larger cells are affected more by radiation, and even among these aquatic organisms, the smaller ones (coccolithophorids or nannoplankton) became extinct later. A section from Late Cretaceous (Maestrichitian) deposits in Alabama containing these fossils was examined by scientists who concluded that they were affected by an increase of radiation. Other marine organisms that became extinct were calcium-bearing shellfish and reef-builders (Ammonites, Inoceramids, Beleminites, Rudists, Gastropods, Echnoids, Radiolaria, Crinoids, Brachiopods, and Hermatypic and Scleractinian corals). Of these organisms it was the larger, surface types that experienced extinctions, often before the final episode (Late Cretaceous). The reason that surface-dwelling types were more readily affected is that water, especially salty water, is a good neutralizer or buffer against radiation. As a result, the deeper water (benthic) organisms were not affected much and if they were it was because they were large, calcium-bearing and immobile, bottom dwellers (sessile benthic). These deep-water types were typically those that could be found in the region of a Field where the ocean and sediment were severely disturbed.

Shallow water types were the first to become extinct with a peak (in calcite dissolution) at the time of the iridium. For instance, Ammonites, relatives of the Chambered Nautilus, assume distorted shapes by uncurling and twisting their otherwise spiraling shells in late formations. Genera is a group of a given organism that is comprised of many species, and of the 34 genera of shellfish, Ammonites, none survived. Likewise, it was the organisms with a narrow range of adaptability to environmental change (stenotypic) that were more deeply affected than those with a wide range and a global distribution (eurytopic).

Bony fish are more readily affected, showing more extinctions than other fish (from 185 to 39 genera in marine types). Changes in deep ocean circulation (causing fluctuations in basinal carbonate compensation surfaces prior to and following the K/T boundary) have been postulated as a cause of marine extinctions, but no real "genetic" link between the two exists. Also, fluctuations in salinity and oxygen (oxic conditions) can be ruled out, because certain organisms (bryozoans and specialized crinoids) were at a peak in diversity at the time of their mass extinction.

Examining dinosaur egg-shells, by measuring their thickness in successive layers of rock, disclosed certain trends that reflect what would be expected of FEM. Older rock layers show an acceptable shell thickness (2.5 mm. or 0.1 in.), but near the end of the Cretaceous the shell thickness reached a drastic fragility (1.0 mm. or 0.04 in.). In one rock face, near Corbieres, France, eight eggs were so poorly shelled that the embryos could not have utilized enough calcium to form their skeletons. It has been theorized that these thin shells resulted from the passage of unusually severe atmospheric cold fronts or by the emergence of toxic substances in the environment. Some shells are noted to have shells within shells and indicate an offset hormone system and a sharp increase in mutation. All of these observations can be linked with the direct effects of ionizing radiation.

Further evidence of calcium-dependent mutation is seen in the late changes that took place in dinosaur skulls. An exaggeration of the nasal plume in the duckbilled dinosaur (Parasaurolophus) and a bizarre solid-bone domed skull of others (Pachycephalosaurus and Saurolophus) make their appearance at the close of the Cretaceous. The bony frill behind the skull of another dinosaur (Triceratops) underwent abnormal development. In fact, each formation at the close of the Cretaceous houses a totally distinctive skeleton of dinosaurs related to this one (Ceratopsians) that cannot be found earlier. The Beaked or Duckbilled Dinosaur (Hadrosaurs) had a skull which bore an ornate crest rising from the crown of its head like a top hat. Some had huge bony crests that are either solid or may have contained hollow nasal passages. So well preserved were these fossils that descriptions of stomach contents, including the composition of a last meal, were possible. In fact, the Duckbilled Dinosaur (Hadrosaur), the "mummy" fossil discussed earlier, and others (Ceratopsians) are among the samples of uranium-bearing and radioactive bones. In North America there is the accelerated evolution of another dinosaur (Kristosaurus) that became flat-headed. So prevalent were these new species that one could easily wonder if they were merely mutants, while some scientists saw this divergence as evidence of racial senility and a possible cause of the dinosaurs' demise (see Figure 2).

More body surface area, or a greater cell or chromosome size, permits more radiation to be absorbed. Every land animal (terrestrial vertebrate) with a body weight of 25 kilograms (55 lbs.) or more became extinct (with the exception of some which will be discussed). One of the leading authorities on dinosaurs comments on this: "The dinosaurian extinctions would seem to be in conformity with an increase in background radiation." This is why dinosaurs and large marine surface feeding animals (Plesiosaurs, Mosasaurs and Ichthyosaurs) had no general decline prior to a fairly abrupt extinction (at Maestrichitian-Danian Boundary). The young did not survive because the offspring of irradiated parents are experimentally known to be the most affected. Skeletal mutations, such as the abnormal skulls observed, are typical of the dominant mutations induced in experiments with ionizing radiation.

Gastroliths, the stones used by dinosaurs to aid digestion, can be found scattered about in rock layers, but not in the animals' stomach region had they merely collapsed and perished. Radiation causes a sickness which leads to vomiting, and this is the evidence of that sickness. The presence of ionizing radiation explains all of the observations.

Severe climatic deterioration can be ruled out as a cause of these highly selective extinctions. Animals very sensitive to cold survived the boundary event. More elaborate explanations than either climatic deterioration or impact are therefore necessary to accurately interpret the evidence.

Extinctions of land plants also indicate what could be predicted from the effects of radiation. A gradual change for land plants took place, not a catastrophic mass extinction. Flowering land plants (Angiosperms) reach a peak in the number of species at or near the end of the Cretaceous (K/T boundary), and the change at that time is relatively minor. Plants are far less susceptible to short-term radiation (by a factor of ten compared to animals), and are even less sensitive to long-term (chronic) exposure. This is also why cycles of extinctions in plants are much less defined than for other organisms. Seeds are even more resistant than the parent plants, especially if protected by soil, low cover or soot. In fact, the earliest fossil record of seed dormancy is an exceptionally well-preserved specimen with no signs of insect damage. Typical of irradiated plants, these fossils offer evidence for the presence of ionizing radiation.

A brief dominance of ferns after the iridium layer is restricted to western North America and eastern Asia. Ferns' shoots (i.e., meristems) are at or below the ground surface, and may therefore be partially or completely shielded. Furthermore, spores, smaller than most seeds, would absorb less radiation, and the fossil record shows that seed-ferns became extinct while spore types did not. Pines are the most sensitive to radiation and many species of pine became extinct. The larger plants and those with larger chromosomes, such as broad-leaved forests, were affected the most, again reflecting the known effects of radiation.

Although many types (taxa) of land plants became extinct, the total change was much less dramatic than the other organisms experiencing mass extinctions (marine phytoplankton, dinosaurs, etc.). Fossil evidence shows that plant life was devastated, and then returns with only some genera and species becoming extinguished. Radiation is known to cause the inhibition of seed germination, but does not prevent it. In contrast, all of the evidence exhibits a scenario that was not the type of catastrophe one could attribute to asteroid or comet impacts, or volcanic eruptions.

The boundary in North America suggests a sudden and traumatic vegetation disturbance, and a profound and long-lasting climate change. The selective extinction of broad-leaved evergreen species transpired. Broad-leaved evergreen species are the most radiation sensitive of all plants. Typical of FEM, there was a long-term restructuring of vegetation that is expressed most strongly at the mid and low northern latitudes. Aberrant angiosperm pollen grains occur several meters above the boundary, suggesting a prolonged period of stress. Again, this suggests the type of response noted in studies of the effects of radiation on plants. A different sequence of events occurred in western Canada between the 60o and 75o North Latitudes (the confluence of the mid-latitude and polar fields) that cannot be explained by the impact scenario.

The expansion of the range of broad-leaved deciduous forests in the following (Paleocene) period is said to be due to increased genetic diversity and the development of dormancy, which would have increased the survival rate. A minor vegetational disturbance in the Southern Hemisphere argues strongly against a simultaneous global conflagration of the impact scenario. The volcanic scenario is also inadequate for explaining the evidence. A scientist reviewing the evidence of plant extinctions comes to this conclusion: "Existing scenarios are clearly inadequate to explain all the patterns of regional extinction, survivorship and ecological restructuring that took place at the end of the Cretaceous."

Other extinctions show the selective nature of ionizing radiation. Freshwater amphibians, such as crocodiles and turtles, show almost no change even when in excess of the 25 kilogram (55 lbs.) weight. This is because water is a good buffer against radiation, and mud, which they lay their eggs in, is particularly so. Mammals with placentas, which are protective, show much less extinction than those with pouches that the fetus must climb into in order to fully develop (marsupials). Of the freshwater organisms it is calcium-bearing bony fish and fish with cartilage (with calcium-salts in association) that show some extinctions. No other theory has accounted nor can account for such selectivity in the extinctions. A scientist comments: "The high selectivity of terminal Cretaceous extinctions implies that, whatever the nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary events, their effects on the various groups of living beings were not uniform. This is obviously not in good agreement with hypotheses which involve tremendously violent and devastating events; such catastrophes would not have been very selective in their consequences on the living communities. It thus seems that more complex factors than mere body size or resistance to cold are involved, and that the very variety of the groups that survived calls for a more elaborate explanation."

The remainder of observations account for the lingering effects of radiation on a much shorter time scale than hypothesized. Foods that are irradiated would persist beyond the effects of initial radiation doses. This would lead first to initial effects followed by secondary effects. Organisms most susceptible to the primary presence of radiation would metabolize the radiation, becoming extinct (calcium-bearing photosynthetic plankton), or they would pass the radiation on (plants). This is why we see a progressive wave of extinction from primary consumers to large consumers (lower to higher trophic levels). Likewise, primary producers are the least affected by radiation, followed by those that consume plants (herbivores), and finally by those that consume animals (carnivores). First, radioactive materials end up in basic food sources and are then transferred through food, air and water to animals. This is the reason for the observed steps in mass extinctions and the progressive wave. Also resolved is the fact that there is no randomness to the extinctions as occurs at other (background) times when there are no mass extinctions. Furthermore, the sets of extinctions do not occur at the same time. The largest animals, as for example the dinosaurs, undergo both initial effects and latent effects, leading to the present debate that their extinction was gradual or instantaneous. The fossil evidence is also geographically segregated in a way that would be predicted of FEM, as the extinctions occurred more along the mid-latitudes.

Here is the mechanism that is responsible for bringing about new species, as well. Ionizing radiation released by the Earth includes the by-products of hydrogen fusion: protons and neutrons (electrons are utilized in the Fields). Gamma rays and X-rays are routinely produced by particle accelerators, or the Fields in the case of FEM, because the Fields are particle accelerators. All of these particles are the most effective mutagens known for both plants and animals.

The primary results of more than three-quarters of a century of research is that the gene is the physical basis of heredity and function, and that mutation is the ultimate source of variability. Ionizing radiation not only causes genes to mutate, but also breaks chromosomes, causing them to recombine in a different order or split them. When two chromosomes break in the same nucleus it sometimes happens that the broken ends join together and the order of the genetic information is changed. Some organisms carrying such genetic coding may be capable of giving rise to an adult individual whose germ cells lack the normal chromosomal complement, and incapable of full development, it perishes. For this reason, we see a greater diversity of species near the end of the Cretaceous before the final extinction. Other groups irradiated with similar doses and undergoing chromosome recombination could lead to new organisms capable of reproducing, hence new species (eventually new genera and families). This is the process behind what has been called evolution, and mechanisms at the molecular level were discussed in the previous chapter.

Other conditions operating during times of mass extinction and the origins of new species have genetic influence. The Fields emit pulsed radio frequencies, especially during times of increased activity. Pulsed radio-frequency fields have also been shown to alter chromosomes. Ionization of the atmosphere would definitely produce static electricity, producing electrostatic fields. Chromosome breaks and translocations are generated by electrostatic fields. Furthermore, there is evidence that a reduction in strength, or a reversal, of the Earth's magnetic field is capable of influencing the restructuring of genetic material. Those studying paleomagnetism find that the geomagnetic field strength is about 25% of normal during reversals, which often occur during times of mass extinction. So the process behind evolution involves ionizing radiation, and radio-frequency and electrostatic fields, as well as reduced strength and/or reversal of the Earth's magnetic field (more detail was given in sections of Tome Two).

Most scientists admit that the evolutionary theory proposed by Darwin and maintained by geology for about a century is deficient when examining the fossil record. In fact, Darwin made three mistakes that have influenced perceptions, not only in geology and biology, but in our society as a worldwide whole. Those mistakes were that he: (1) denied mass extinctions by claiming they were merely the result of an imperfect geological record; (2) assumed that species diversity tends to increase (exponentially) with time, much like one reproducing pair would gain more and more relatives; and (3) that natural selection (competition) or "survival of the fittest" was the major cause of extinction. The fossil record indicates that these three assumptions are seriously in error, yet they have controlled much of our scientific and social thinking for at least a century. Hence, there has been a call for a new evolutionary synthesis.

Fossils, however, display the type of record that could be predicted from sudden genetic mutation. Such is the case with flowering plants, called Angiosperms, who make a sudden appearance in the Cretaceous. A specialist studying these plants remarks: "The ancestral group that gave rise to Angiosperms has not yet been identified in the fossil record, and no living Angiosperm points to such an ancestral alliance. In addition, the record has shed almost no light on relations between taxa at ordinal and family level."

Darwin had thought that the sudden emergence of higher plants was the most extraordinary event to take place in the Plant Kingdom. Though the above quote was made more than three decades ago, today it remains an essentially unsolved problem after a century-long look at the fossil record. Today the best theories are argued from hypothetical linkages, and at best there is only a very superficial resemblance.

The first fossils were noted in Brazil, then Israel, and worldwide near the end of the Cretaceous. Yet, during that time, sea level was high and no land bridges existed, while many continents were separated by inland seas or oceans. If we are not to totally dismiss the fossil record of inland seas, and the history of plate tectonics, we are left with the enigma of worldwide distribution, as well as origins. Genetic mutation caused by similar levels of ionizing radiation (and other factors) occurring worldwide with some original parent stock already worldwide, mutated into a new worldwide species, appears to be the only possible answer. Probably it was seed-fern fronds mutating into Angiosperm-like leaves, and maybe primitive leaves and pollen undergoing parallel evolution. Molecular evidence points to a possible (Permo-Triassic) origin at an extinction boundary. Certain characteristics of angiosperms (stratified meristems) promote long-term retention of many categories of (somatic) mutation. Further implicating FEM is the fact that the first prominence of angiosperms was around the mid-latitudes.

This is also why we observe that some species (Aquilapollenites and Proteacidites) became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. However, the extinctions are not the catastrophic type expected from impact theory or volcanics. They are complex and demonstrate unique occurrences even within the same continent. According to FEM we should see distinct changes between western Canada and the western United States that divide along the 40o latitude, and this has been demonstrated!

In light of this scenario, consider this statement made by a specialist studying the effect of radiation on plants: "Ionizing radiation is generally thought to have played a very minor role among the selective processes of evolution. It is somewhat surprising therefore that the effects of radiation on natural communities follow predictable patterns apparently related to the evolution of life." Developmental processes are reasonably similar at the genetic level in all flowering plants (Angiosperm ontogeny). First, similar development (ontogeny) occurs, then unique development. A scientist well versed in radiation-induced mutations in plants says that such a process can "account for the evolution of plant diversity." Ionizing radiation remains the most successful way of breeding new plants.

This is the main reason we witness an upsurge in species diversity in the following (Tertiary) period when many of the modern families and genera appear. The end of the Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) is dominated by genera that occur in recent plants, but earlier it is dominated by extinct genera. At the end of the Cretaceous (K/T boundary) we observe a mass mortality of plants followed by a succession that leads to a new dominant type (Gymnosperms). Studying the end of the Cretaceous (K/T boundary) in New Mexico and Colorado shows some Laurels (three-lobed members) drastically reduced, and then they disappear. In North Dakota and Montana a forest of broad-leaved trees and shrubs was replaced by another very different forest. Only 10% of 32 new types of classifications, known as taxa, survived and 30 taxa appear to replace them at the end of the Cretaceous (K/T boundary). The scientist studying these changes comments: "Each of these forests would be completely different. You wouldn't recognize the new from seeing the old." Such an effect is by no means restricted to plants.

When other fossil evidence is examined, similar patterns are observed. A rapid diversification of most surviving organisms transpires in the beginning of the next period. The K/T boundary is the label used for the geological and palentological remains of the event that took place between the Cretaceous (K) and the following period, the Tertiary (T). Within a narrow interval of the K/T Boundary in some marine sections is a peculiar transitional form of calcium-bearing plankton (foraminifera). Freshwater amphibians and reptiles, along with land (terrestrial) snails and mammals increase in the number of genera. In fact, so much did mammals begin to prosper that the following period (Tertiary) is often referred to as the Age of Mammals.

Such is the case throughout the fossil record. A statement by one scientist, in a book titled Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, tells the tale:

"It is one of the most striking features of the fossil record that most new kinds of organisms appear abruptly. The fossils have not only failed to yield the host of transitional forms demanded by evolution theory, but because nearly all extinct species and groups revealed by paleontology are quite distinct and isolated as they burst into the record, then the number of hypothetical connecting links to join its diverse branches is necessarily greatly increased."

Of course, what is being referred to is evolutionary theory as proposed by Darwin, and maintained by biology and geology for over a century. However, the situation is beginning to change as the labels indicate: NeoDarwinism, molecular evolution, and molecular biology.

Genetic mutation, as caused by ionizing radiation, requires gaps between different types of organisms. That fact is also why the development of an organism from an embryo to a complete organism (ontogeny) reflects what might be considered evolutionary steps. Encoded in the genes are all the previous mutations created by periods of ionizing radiation throughout its evolutionary history (phylogeny). This is also why evolutionary changes occur in steps and cycles or are periodic, and are not random.

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The Actual Event

In the overall scene we can say that life's abundance had already been greatly diminished, leading to a life crisis on Earth (loss of biogeoelectrostatic properties). As a result, the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field became drastically reduced. Then a solar flare of huge proportions was hurled towards the Earth.

Depending on the direction (polarity) of the Sun's Interplanetary Magnetic Field, or IMF, the Earth's magnetic field either reverses (IMF of opposite polarity), or wanders to a different location (same polarity). This will be discussed in Tome Five of Volume Two. During the event that is marked by the K/T boundary the pole reversed.

Particle flow along the other Fields of the Earth induced ridge expansion (electrostatic repulsion, etc.), causing the continents to rend, buckle and drift (tectonic episodes), contributing to changes in sea level (eustatic episodes and ridge expansion), while volcanoes burst forth in titanic eruptions (including mantle plumes). Iridium (terrestrial iridium, microtektites or tektites) is ejected as the by-products of hydrogen fusion are released. The Fields shifting also leads to explosive cratering, spewing out shocked minerals (quartz or feldspar). Consequentially, colossal whirlpools are churned in the oceans, elements in the environment become altered (isotope fluctuations), and freezing cold moves in (ionization causing a vacuum, allowing colder upper atmospheric layers to move in). Shallow-water, calcium-bearing organisms (index fossils), and large or otherwise radiation-vulnerable organisms became extinct, particularly away from the tropics, as the Fields are situated on the equatorial bulge pointing away from the tropics. Other creatures emerge from the mutations created by the altered genetic material that had resulted from the effects of ionizing radiation and the other factors present (i.e., geomagnetic reversal, electrostatic fields, pulsed radio frequency fields, microwaves, hydrocarbons, and acid precipitation). Life not only managed to survive, but new species would rapidly diversify, achieving greater stability in the environment than ever before.

Such is the scene that can be predicted from an understanding of FEM. In fact, such events should be periodic or cyclic (time-varying), and capable of explaining the fossil and geological records. Scientists have discovered that events do occur in cycles or episodes, and the geologic and fossil records of the events reveal that they took place in the order just described.

Mass extinctions display the type of geographic distribution attributed to the positions of the Fields. The Fields are located near coasts, and it is those organisms in the Coastal Plains Provinces that are the least capable of survival, regardless of whether there were many species or a few. For the entire Age of Reptiles (Mesozoic), fossil finds of dinosaurs have been uncovered, for the most part, between the 45o latitudes and around the North Pole, with the vast majority between 30o and 40o latitudes. While this has much to do with present-day population distributions in those regions, it cannot be attributed solely to a selection effect. Drastic temperature drops are also known to occur in the Field regions, occasionally producing glaciations. In every respect, if ancient (paleo-) geographic data alone are considered, FEM is essential to the complete interpretation of the evidence (see Tome Two Chapters 22 and 23).

The latter part of the Cretaceous offers a good example of latitude restrictions generated by FEM. The most striking feature of the European Late Cretaceous fauna is the dissimilarity between the northern and southern regions. Northern types have been recognized in England, Northern France, Germany, the former Soviet Union and Scandinavia, while the southern types were throughout the Mediterranean Province. This segregation holds true not only for Europe but also in the Asiatic, African and North American regions.

Other observations disclose this geographic segregation. The irradiated bones discovered in the Gobi Desert were discovered around the latitudes of the Fields, and the area is one of the richest provinces for dinosaur fossil finds. Extinction rates in general were greatest in the mid-latitudes, and least near the equator, particularly for plants. The mid-latitude Fields are situated above the equatorial bulge and point away from the equator. Especially heavy losses took place in North Alaska, Canada and Northeastern Siberia, all of which surrounded the Cretaceous Pole. In Western North America, geographically located just opposite of today's East Coast during the Cretaceous, extinctions reached 70 to 80 percent. The North Atlantic Field was situated near Western North America in the Cretaceous, hence the richest fossil region in North America exists there. When the distribution and size of shocked mineral grains is considered, it is the North American western interior that displays the most abundant distribution and maximum size. Unlike the global distribution of marine iridium, the non-marine iridium has only been found in the western interior of North America. Again, these facts contradict an impact in the Gulf of Mexico region. The northern mid-latitudes and the western Northern Hemisphere were more severely affected, which is especially notable for plants. Slower, more gradual extinctions ensued on Antarctica, and extinctions were less in the higher southern latitudes and near the equator.

The evidence suggests that a huge burst of solar activity took place and entered the South Pole (GMF-IMF interactions), and subsequent hydrogen fusion by-products were released through the remaining Fields, particularly the North Atlantic Field. As a result, the Fields along the 30o to 40o latitudes, pointing away from the equatorial bulge, released radiation, causing extinctions to peak in the Temperate and North Polar regions, while more gradual extinctions occurred in the Antarctic region.

A number of facts indicate that the North Atlantic Field was activated the most. For one, there is the higher abundance and size of the shocked grains in North America. Also, North America was the continent that moved the most in plate tectonic activity at the close of the Cretaceous. That is, more particle flow occurred along Field lines whose descending limbs control plate motion. Plate tectonics will be discussed subsequently. Underwater earthquakes, such as those caused by sudden Mid-Atlantic ridge expansion, generate tsunamis or "tidal waves." As could be predicted by this model, evidence shows that a tsunami struck southeastern North America, as studies in Texas disclosed. The lack of any tsunami-like deposit in the shallower Braggs, Alabama section indicates that an impact-generated tsunami is out of the question. Small iridium anomalies for sites from the Cretaceous North American Western Interior Seaway and northeastern Atlantic have been interpreted as due to volcanic emanations from a very active mid-Atlantic ridge. Also a sequence (of Mg-rich semctite bearing bentonites) is believed to be derived from volcanic ash at the boundary in northwestern Europe. The (transgressive) sea advances onto land in the Cretaceous were closely allied to increased oceanic volcanic activity. Furthermore, extinctions were more severe on the North American continent, especially along the 30o to 40o latitudes.

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No other theory can explain all of the various observations left behind in the geologic and fossil records. For a related topic see the web pages on evolution, and planetary ejections and cratering.






Related News Stories

-- Last Update: October 11, 2011



  • The Family of Asteroids between Mars and Jupiter some Believed was Responsible for the Demise of the Dinosaurs is Not likely the Culprit. See the Discovery,com and Physorg.comarticles.


  • The Iridium Anomaly, a Possible Sign of an Impact, May Actually be from a Volcanic Source. See the Physorg.com news release.


  • Once Again Protein is Found in a Mesozoic Dinosaur, This Time a 70-Million-Year-Old Mosasaur. See the Physorg.com news release

  • New Fossil Evidence Shows that the Dinosaurs Survived 700,000 Years After the Boundary. See the Sciencedaily.com article.

  • A Group of Scientists Report that there were Multiple Causes for the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinctions. These multiple causes are considered to be impact, marine regression, volcanic activity, and changes in global and regional climatic patterns. Moreover, there are many bits of evidence that prove it was not just an impact. [source: Archibald, JD, et al (2010) Cretaceous Extinctions: Multiple Causes. Science 328: 973].

  • Some Emphasize the Role of Volcanic Eruptions. However, this hypothesis does not take into account the selectivity of the mass extinctions. [source: Courtillot, V, Flutea, F (2010) Cretaceous Extinctions: The Volcanic Hypothesis. Science 328: 973-4].

  • Another Group also Sees this as a Multiple-Cause Scenario, and Demonstrates that Much of the So-Called "Evidence" for an Impact-Only Scenario is Misrepresented or Occur at Different Times Than the Proposed Impact. [source: Keller, G, et al (2010) Cretaceous Extinctions: Evidence Overlooked. Science 328: 974-5].

  • Marine Algae Recovered Very Fast, and this Discredits the Scenario of a Huge, Impact-Generated Dust Cloud Blocking Sunlight. See the Physorg.com news release. Likewise, the impact extinction hypothesis the shutdown of photosynthesis by dust is not valid, because "it requires more than two orders of magnitude more fine dust than is estimated." [source: Pope, KO (2002) Impact dust not the cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction. Geology 30(2): 99-102].

  • A Study of Long-Period Comets Indicates that it is an "Improbable" Source of Mass Extinctions, ever since the End-Permian Mass Extinctions. [source: Kaib, NA, Quinn, T (2009) Reassessing the Source of Long-Period Comets. Science 325: 1234-6].

  • Another Hypothesis is that Toxic Algae Caused the Mass Extinction. The problem is that there is a good deal of evidence that there was planet-shrouding dust that would have prevented the algae from growing. But, then again it could be part of a more complex set of factors involving FEM. It is also noted that there have been huge mats of these algae, called stromatolites, strewn around the planet during a number of mass extinctions. See the Physorg.com article. Also, in the scenario involving FEM's release of ionizing radiation can fit this observation, as these algae have been shown to be resistant to ionizing radiation, and so, would survive such a scenario. [source: Bill, D. et al (2000) Ionizing-Radiation Resistance in the Desiccation-Tolerant Cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66:1489-1492].

  • The Latest Hypothesis of the Dinosaurs Demise is a Huge Crater near India. The crater is a multi-ringed crater, typical of the type associated with ejection, as discussed on the web page, Planetary Ejections and Cratering. It has not yet been dated, but the reflex is to assume it is from that time. See the Sciencedauily.com article and the MSNBC article.

  • Tissue of T-Rex is Real. Again, there is a sample of tissue from an animal that became extinct long ago. Ionizing radiation can, and is used today for, preserving tissue and it used to preserve meat and other food stuffs. See the Sciencedialy.com article. See following two entries.

  • Anothere Fossil Hadrosaur (Duck-Billed Dinosaur) Contains Protein. Proteins are not supposed to survive for long after an animal dies, but ionizing radiation can preserve it. This is yet another fossil Hadrosaur, a dinosaur species that shows tremendous variations in skull size and shape, and ionizing radiation is especially capable of skeletial mutations, because calcium is very affected by ionizing radiation. See the article from Science magazine. It is like the one found in North Dakota -- see also this National Geographic artilce that discusses an even more complete mummy Hadrosaur.

  • Another Dinosaur Mummy is Found with its Skin Intact, Even Showing Cell Structure. Again, as discussed this is to be expected of an event that preserved the skin before bacteria could decay it, and ionizing radiation is very capable of doing this. On the other hand, an animal just falling and being covered by sediament cannot do this, and no examples of such have ever been found in modern day areas covered by sediaments. See the BBC news article amd the Dicovery article.

  • Scientists Try to Explain Soot at the Extinction Event, but Fall Short. The shroud of debri, soot and dust should have killed off all plant life, but it has been shown that even in the proposed site in Yucatan plants survived, as did the honeybee who would need flowers to survive. See the NewScientist article.

  • New Evidence Shows that Not All Dinosaurs Became Extinct at the Mass Extinction Boundary. It seems that some of them survived in the western United States. It should be noted that the location is fairly near the proposed impact crater. See the National Geographic news release. Other news items on this story are in Livescience.com and Physorg.com

  • Another Scientist Shows that there are Not the Effects Expected of an Asteroid Impact. However, the claim is that the mass extinction was the result of volcanism, which also cannot explain all of the facts. See the Physorg.com news item. Also see another Physorg.com article and a thehindu.com news release.

  • The Evidence Shows, also, that the Supposed Impact area, Yucatan's Chicxulub Crater, was much Earlier than the Mass Extinction. The analysis indicates that the crater formed about 300.000 years earlier than the mass extinction. See the Physorg.com news item.

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  • Other, New Evidence Reveals that the Dinosaurs were in Decline Millions of Years Prior to the Proposed Impact. See the Physorg.com article

  • More evidence Surfaces that Meteorite Impacts are Not the Culprits of Mass Extinctions. Two large craters (about 100 kilometers in diameter) dated to the Eocene, about 30 million years ago, did not cause any mass extinction. [source: Poag, C.W. (1997) Roadblocks on the Kill Curve: Testing the Raup Hypothesis. Palaios 12:582-590].

  • New Species Blossomed -- Known as an Origination Rate -- After the Mass Extinction. Again, this would be expected of the effects of ionizing radiation, geomagnetic fluctuations, and other factors of an activated FEM that will rearrange genetic material and bring about new species. This is discussed in The Vital Vatness -- Volume One, and the web page Evolution, Mass Extinctions and Mass Speciations. See the Sciencedaily news item. [source: Andrew Z. Krug, David Jablonski, and James W. Valentine (2009) Signature of the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction in the Modern Biota. Science 323: 767-771].

  • Impacts as Agents of Mass Extinctions are Losing Crediblity. As has been discussed on this web page and in The Vital Vatness -- Volume One, asteroid or comet impacts are not enough to cause mass extinction events, but instead a drawnout series of events is what takes place. See the MSNBC.com article or the Sciencedaily.com news release.

  • Soot Layer Once Thought to be the Result of Global Wildfires is, Instead, the result of Hydrocarbons Similar to Gas and Oil. As discussed in The Vital Vatness -- Volume One, ionizing radiation precipitates, from the atmosphere, the components that make up hydrocarbons. This occurs at the same time as mass extinctions and results in the unresolved debate that oil is either fossil fuel, or as in the case of long-chain hydrocarbons, a non-biological origin -- it is both. At any rate this means that the wildfire once believed to be the result of an impact is not the culprit of the mass extinction. See the Nature News article. [source: Belcher, C. M., et al. (2009). Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA (doi:10.1073/pnas.0813117106)].

  • The Coincidence of an Impact and Flood Basalt Volcanism 30 Million Years Ago was Not Associated with any Mass Extinction. Here is a relatively similar scenario to the mass extinction that did in the dinosaurs, but no mass extinction. See the Sciencedaily.com news release.

  • Mass Extinctions are Not Attributed to Impacts, but a "Sick Earth." What is particularly noted is that there are major coral extinctions, indicating disturbed ocean chemistry, but the source is unknown. See the Physorg.com article. Meanwhile, as discussed in The Vital Vatness -- Volume One, highly disturbed oceans are typical at times of mass extinctions, and that it is due to the Fields of the Field-dynamical Earth Model, whose Field stems are in the oceans.

  • This Might Scare a Few People, but the Oceans Now are More Acid than those at the Time of the End-Cretaceous Extinctions. The Earth is again experienceing a "sick Earth" scenario. See the UK Guardian news release, and the Earthtoday.net news article.

  • New Dinosaur Mummy is Disovered with its Skin Intact. Again, as discussed, this requires some way of preserving the dinosaur prior to it burial, and ionizing radiation is adept at just that. See the World-science article.

  • Marine Life Persisted After the Supposed Impact. Above the iridium layer, an element believed to be the result of an extraterrestrial impactor, are marine fossils that show they were not at all affected by an impact. As discussed, iridium can accompany planetary ejections, and this could account for the iridium worldwide at the time. The impact theory cannot account for this finding or the survival of other creatures discussed in other studies. See the New York Times news release.

  • More Evidence Indicates that Mass Extinctions are Not Caused by Impact or Massive Volcanic Eruptions. See the ScienceNow article.. [source: Berardelli, P, Mass Extinction: Out with a Whimper Not a Bang. ScienceNow (Nov 7, 2007)].

  • Some Sites Show Increased Biodiversity for Insect and Plant Populations After the Disaster that Made an End of the Dinosaurs. The problem is that the insects, in particular, should have been decimated had it been an asteroid impact. That is, the scenario includes a huge light-shrouding cloud of debris killing off all vegetation, which the insects depend on for food. Again, this fact argues in favor of a different scenario, as does the survival of the honeybee. See the livescience.com article

  • Finally, the Scientific Community is Admitting that the Asteroid Impact Hypothesis for the Dinosaurs' Extinction is Inadequate for Explaining the Evidence. This is a step in the right direction, but there is still room for improvement, as the actual event is a major destabilization of the planet, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Voluime One (Tome Three). See the livescience.com article.

  • Carbon is Found Worldwide at the Time of the Mass Exrinction that Did in the Dinosaurs. As can be seen in the discussion regarding the fact that the type of carbon found could only be found in the industrial era and not a "naturally" occurring phenomena. They require very intense heat that accompanies the burning of coal and crude oil. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Voluime One (Tome Three) ionizing radiation can percipitate hydrocarbons (which are in coal and oil), and there are also polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the boundary layer worldwide, as well. See the Physorg.com news story.

  • The Supposed Impact Object that did in the Dinosaurs is Much Smaller Than Orginally Thought, Making the Global Distribution of Certain Evidence All that Much Harder to Fit the Proposed Scenario. The previous estimate of 9.3 to 12 miles in diameter is twice the size of what the evidence suggests. This fact leaves open the question of what really happened at that time, as the impact scenario doesn't fit. See the khnl.com news item. [source: Paquay, F.S. et al. (2008) Determining Chondritic Impactor Size from the Marine Osmium Isotope Record. Science 320: 214-218.]

  • Big Surprise! The Grand Canyon Likely Started to Form at the Time of the Dinosaurs' Extinction. This makes sense, as continental North America buckled, sending a long-time inland sea off into the oceans. It probably began with a channel carved into the sandstone by the inland sea rushing off the continent. This is also suggested when it is noted that the plateau in which the Grand Canyon is carved is actually a buldge, which water should flow around, not through. It would take a very, very fast current to channel through a buldge. A huge planetary destabilization easily fits the scenario -- again. See the Physorg.com and the World-Science.net articles.

  • Once Again, a Mummified Dinosaurs in Found Intact, Skin and All. It seems that by itself these sorts of finds provide further evidence that ionizing radiation dominated the end of the Cretaceous. The finds of mummified fossils are particularly confined to the end of the Cretaceous, such as this one, which is 65 million years old. Moreover, it is a duck-billed dinosaur, a dinosaur that shows many skull changes (skeletal mutations?) in the late Cretaceous. Ionizing radiation is exceptionally good at preserving tissue, as it kills any bacteria that would decay the animal. In fact, ionizing radiation -- particularlly gamma-rays -- is used to preserve meat today. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One. See the FoxNews.com article (note the slide show), and Physorg.com news brief.

  • All of the Other Theories Don't Explain the Mass Extinction, so let's say that they Dinosaurs were Bugged to Extinction. This is one of the latest theories to emerge, that the final blow to the dinosaurs was insects bringing disease. See the cnews.canoe.ca article.

  • Here's Another One! Add to the Impact Scenario a Huge Cloud of Water. Scientists now say that the "impactor" that "hit" Yucatan was much larger and hit deep water, and eventually produced acid rain. What isn't said though is that had the object hit deep water, as they state, then it should have broken into pieces before it hit rock, and therefore, it should have left more than one crater. See the Livesceince.com article.

  • Some Sites Show Increased Biodiversity for Insect and Plant Populations After the Disaster that Made an End of the Dinosaurs. The problem is that the insects, in particular, should have been decimated had it been an asteroid impact. That is, the scenario includes a huge light-shrouding cloud of debris killing off all vegeataion, which the insects depend on for food. Again, this fact argues in favor of a different scenario, as does the survival of the honeybee. See the livescience.com article

  • Finally, the Scientific Community is Admitting that the Asteroid Impact Hypothesis for the Dinosaurs' Extinction is Inadequate for Explaining the Evidence. This is a step in the right direction, but there is still room for improvement, as the actual event is a major destabilization of the planet, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Voluime One (Tome Three). See the livescience.com article.

  • Carbon is Found Worldwide at the Time of the Mass Exrinction that Did in the Dinosaurs. As can be seen in the discussion regarding the fact that the type of carbon found could only be found in the industrial era and not a "naturally" occurring phenomena. They require very intense heat that accompanies the burning of coal and crude oil. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Voluime One (Tome Three) ionizing radiation can percipitate hydrocarbons (which are in coal and oil), and there are also polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the boundary layer worldwide, as well. See the Physorg.com news story.

  • The Supposed Impact Object that did in the Dinosaurs is Much Smaller Than Orginally Thought, Making the Global Distribution of Certain Evidence All that Much Harder to Fit the Proposed Scenario. The previous estimate of 9.3 to 12 miles in diameter is twice the size of what the evidence suggests. This fact leaves open the question of what really happened at that time, as the impact scenario doesn't fit. See the khnl.com news item. [source: Paquay, F.S. et al. (2008) Determining Chondritic Impactor Size from the Marine Osmium Isotope Record. Science 320: 214-218.]

  • Big Surprise! The Grand Canyon Likely Started to Form at the Time of the Dinosaurs' Extinction. This makes sense, as continental North America buckled, sending a long-time inland sea off into the oceans. It probably began with a channel carved into the sandstone by the inland sea rushing off the continent. This is also suggested when it is noted that the plateau in which the Grand Canyon is carved is actually a buldge, which water should flow around, not through. It would take a very, very fast current to channel through a buldge. A huge planetary destabilization easily fits the scenario -- again. See the Physorg.com and the World-Science.net articles.

  • Once Again, a Mummified Dinosaurs in Found Intact, Skin and All. It seems that by itself these sorts of finds provide further evidence that ionizing radiation dominated the end of the Cretaceous. The finds of mummified fossils are particularly confined to the end of the Cretaceous, such as this one, which is 65 million years old. Moreover, it is a duck-billed dinosaur, a dinosaur that shows many skull changes (skeletal mutations?) in the late Cretaceous. Ionizing radiation is exceptionally good at preserving tissue, as it kills any bacteria that would decay the animal. In fact, ionizing radiation -- particularlly gamma-rays -- is used to preserve meat today. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One. See the FoxNews.com article (note the slide show), and Physorg.com news brief.

  • All of the Other Theories Don't Explain the Mass Extinction, so Let's say that the Dinosaurs were Bugged to Extinction. This is one of the latest theories to emerge, that the final blow to the dinosaurs was insects bringing disease. See the cnews.canoe.ca article.

  • Here's Another One! Add to the Impact Scenario a Huge Cloud of Water. Scientists now say that the "impactor" that "hit" Yucatan was much larger and hit deep water, and eventually produced acid rain. What isn't said though is that had the object hit deep water, as they state, then it should have broken into pieces before it hit rock, and therefore, it should have left more than one crater. See the Livesceince.com article.


  • Scientists see Ionizing Radiation as a Cause of Mass Extinctions. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One with particular reference to the time of the dinosaurs' extinction, but also all mass extinctions. The problem is with the assumed source(s) of the ionizing radiation, which these researchers assume is galactic gamma rays. The real source is the Earth itself in the form of the Field-dynamical Earth Model. This will cause problems when the study is scurtinized. [sources: Thomas, B.C. et al (2002) Gamma-ray bursts and the Earth: exploration of atmospheic, biological, climatic, and biogeochemical effects. Astrophysical Journal 634(1):509-533, Melott, A.L., et al (2005) Climatic and biogeochemical of a galactic gamma ray burst. Geophysical Research Letters 32(14):5 pp. and Thomas, B.C., et al (2005) Terrestrial ozone depletion due to a Milky Way gamma-ray burst. Astrophysical Journal 622(2):L153-L158].

  • Some Sites Show a Biodiversity for Insect and Plant Populations After the Disaster that Made an End of the Dinosaurs. The problem is that the insects, in particular, should have been desimated had it been an asteroid impact. That is, the scenario includes a huge light-shrouding cloud of debris killing off all vegeataion, which the insects depend on. Again, this agrues in favor of a different scenario, as does the survival of the honeybee. See the livescience.com article

  • Finally, the Scientific Community is Admitting that the Asteroid Impact Hypothesis for the Dinosaurs' Extinction is Inadequate for Explaining the Evidence. This is a step in the right direction, but there is still room for improvement, as the actual event is a major destabilization of the planet, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Voluime One. See the Livescience.com article. Still there is something that suggests an impact, but there is no candidate crater to support the hypothesis. Meanwhile, it is the Earth (FEM) that spews iridium, shocked minerals and so forth that look like an impact is responsible. Note how the researcher has no answer to what impact is responsible. See the Sciencedaily.com story.

  • The Gobi Desert is Again a Hotbed for Finding Dinosaur Fossils. The Gobi Desert continues to be the area where the vast majority of dinosaur fossils can be found. If the proposed impact in Yucatan were the event that did in the dinosaurs then the area aound Yucatan should be the site with the most fossils. Yet, it is an area clear around the world that is instead. Yet another blow to the theory of an asteroid impact. See the sciencdaily.com article.

  • Once Again there is Evidence that it was Not an Impact that Caused the Extinction of the Dinosaurs. This time the evidence indicates that the dinosaurs were already in decline, and that it was a major climatic shift that did them in. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One the climatic shift was the result of ionizing radiation creating a partial vacuum which the colder upper atmosphere flowed into, creating a steep lowering of global temperature. The scientific community generally sees this as a nuclear winter caused by the asteroid impact or volcani eruptions, because this is what they have been taught to expect. See the Int.iol.co.za news item. See also the next entries.

  • Once Again the Evidence Indicates that the Chicxulub Crater Formed Earlier than the Mass Extinction it is Supposedly Responsible For. Glass spherules found in a number of layers of sediments from northeast Mexico, Texas, Guatemala, Belize, and Haiti all show signs that Chicxulub is their source. However, the analysis indicates that the impact is about 300,000 years before the mass extinctions marking the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods (K-T boundary). See the Physorg.com news story. [additional sources: Keller, G., et al. (2003) Spherule deposits in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments in Belize and Guatemala. Journal of the Geological Society of London 160(5):783-795, and Harting, M., et al (2002) Multielement geochemical investigations by SRXRF microprobe studies on tectite material; evidence from the NE-Mexican Cretaceous/Tertiary record. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 83(47) Suppl.:F865]. See also the previous and next entries.

  • Once Again Scientists see Mass Extinctions as Not Extraterrestrial (Bolide Impact) in Origin. The evidence indicates that the cause of mass extinctions is a process that involves the Earth, not meteortie or asteroid impacts. These scientists, however, try to place blame for the extinctions on volcanic gases. Yet, the selective nature of the extinctions and the fact that not all huge volcanic events are tied to mass extinctions indicates that a more complex situation occurs at such times. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, and on the web pages Dinosaur Extinctions -- No Comet or Asteroid Impact Here, and Evolution, Mass Extinctions and Mass Speciations, revealing that the true event involved ionizing radiation and major destabilizing of the planet. See the Physorg.com article.

  • A Crater has been Discovered in Egypt's Western Desert and Dates to 100 Million Years Ago -- A Time When there were No Mass Extinctions. With all the focus on meteor impacts as causes of mass extinctions it would seem that this crater -- Kebira Crater -- would coinside with a mass extinction, but it is not associated with any extinctions. See the NASA news release. It is the second largest crater in the world. The largest crater was most recently found under the Antarctic ice, so this is now the second largest. Meawhile, this Sahara crater is much larger than the crater in Yucatan (Chicxulub) that is the mark left by an asteroid that supposedly did in the dinosaurs and many other species. Yet, no mass extinction is associated with it, when the size of the crater suggests that it should have killed off far more species in a major mass extinction. This is yet another bit of evidence that shows the impact theory of the dinosaur extinctions is flawed. See the Physorg.com story and the Spaceref.com story. See also previous entries.

  • Fossils Found in a State of Sexual Copulation at the End of the Cretaceous -- the Time of the Dinosaurs Extinction. This sort of thing, like the two dinosaurs found frozen in a state of combat, had to take place very rapidly or they would have defended themselves against a common threat. This argues in favor of a rapid burial and therefore a rapid, instanteous event. See the Hindustantimes.com story.

  • Once Again the Evidence Indicates that the Crater in Yucatan was Not Responsible for the Dinosaurs Demise. A new core, this time from Texas, indicates that the crater formed about 300,000 years before the dinosaurs became extinct. See the News@Nature.com article.

  • The Debate Still Rages on What Really Killed Off the Dinosaurs (and other species at that time) and There is No Real Link Between Impacts or Volcanic Eruptions -- the Two Theories that are Most Often Considered -- and Mass Extinctions. See the Astrobio.net article.

  • An Asteroid as Large as the One that is Claimed to be Responsible for the Dinosaurs' Demise Hit Antarctica About 780,000 Years Ago. This asteroid brokeup in the atmosphere before hitting Antarctica. The thing is the atmosphere is very thin in that region, and so, the asteroid would have been much more likely to penetrate without breaking up than the one 65 million years ago. Moreover, the Antarctica hit should have also caused mass extinctions, according to the impact theory of dinosaur extinction, but it did not. See the EducationGuardian.co.uk article.

  • Once Again, the Asteroid Impact Scenario Supposedly Responsilbe for the Dinosaurs Demise is Not Supported by the Evidence. This time the evidence suggests that the dinosaurs where already dying out far before the impact occurred. See the Space.com news release.

  • Viable Tissue has been Found in T. Rex Bones. Soft tissue and blood vessles where thought to always be replaced by minerals, and certainly not viable. However, ionizing radiation can be an aid in the preservation of biological tissue, as is currently done with meat. [Source: Mary H. Schweitzer, et al. (2005) Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 307:1952-1955].

  • Once Again the Theory of an Asteroid Impact in Yucatan Killing Off the Dinosaurs is Shown to be False. A new study shows that the crater at Chicxulub, in Yucatan, Mexico, was formed 300,000 years earlier than the extinctions. See the National Geographic news release, and the Discovery.com Story. [Source: Keller, G, etal. (2004) Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 3753-3758].

  • Once again Researchers Connect a Mass Extinction to Radiation. This time they are trying to blame gamma-rays for destroying the ozone layer and letting more radiation enter the biosphere. Notwithstanding, a through discusssion of radiation as the cause of mass extinctions and a major process in evolution was presented in The Vital Vastness - Volume One. The real source of the radiation is the Earth itself involving the Field-dynamical Earth Model. For a brief look at this see Evolution, Mass Extinctions, and Mass Speciations. For more on this Ordovician mass extinction see the Space.som story, and the NewScientist.com story..

  • The Dinosaurs had Cancer. Hadrosaurs, the Duck-billed Dinosaurs, had cancer in their tails, according to a new study. This, and the fact that just before the extinction hadrosaurs had an explosion of new varieties of skulls, lend further support to the scenario of mass extinction due to ionizing radiation. That is, ionizing radiation can cause both skeletal mutations and cancer. See the Discovery.com story.

  • More Trouble for the Impact Theory of the Dinosaur Extinctions. For the second time now there is evidence that plankton had survived the time of the dinosaurs' extinction. This time it comes from near the so-called "impact crater" in Yucatan. Plankton should have been one of the first life forms to die off due to the light-shrouding effects of an impact. See the Nature story, and the news release at Betterhumans.com.

  • Once Again Scientists see Mass Extinctions as Not Extraterrestrial (Meteorite Impact) in Origin. The evidence indicates that the cause of mass extinctions is a process that involves the Earth, not meteortie or asteroid impacts. These scientists, however, try to place blame for the extinctions on volcanic gases. Yet, the selective nature of the extinctions and the fact that not all huge volcanic events are tied to mass extinctions indicates that a more complex situation occurs at such times. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, and on the web page Evolution, Mass Extinctions and Mass Speciations, revealing that the true event involved ionizing radiation and major destabilizing of the planet. See the Physorg.com article.

  • Dinosaur Extinction -- Southern Hemisphere Just as Devastated as Northern, Contrary to the Impact Theory. In spite of the present theory that an object impacted the Yucatan Penisula, which would have had mostly effects on the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere shows just as much devastation. This supports the theory proposed on this webpage and The Vital Vastness -- Volume One. See the story from USA Today or get a copy of the article in Science [Source: Vivi Vajda, J. et al. (2001) Indication of Global Deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary by New Zealand Fern Spike. Science 294: 1700-1702].

    >

  • Quick Recovery Follows Dinosaur Extinctions, and Brings Impact Theory into Question. A clay layer marking the dinosaur extinctions was deposited in only 10,000 years. Just above this layer there is the proliferation of new ocean species. Again, the impact scenario does not fit these observations even though the authors claim the helium-3 is extraterrestrial, and they propose a short duration for the K/T event. Meanwhile, there is more helium-3 on Earth than expected from present theoretical perspectives, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, and an impact of the proposed nature should have caused planetary destabilization of a longer duration. [Source: Mukhopadhyay, S., et al (2001) A Short Duration of the Creatceous-Tertiary Boundary Event: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Helium-3. Science 291:1952-1955].

  • Again there is Evidence that it was Not an Impact that Caused the Extinction of the Dinosaurs. This time the evidence indicates that the dinosaurs were already in decline, and that it was a major climatic shift that did them in. As discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One the climatic shift was the result of ionizing radiation creating a partial vacuum which the colder upper atmosphere flowed into, creating a steep lowering of global temperature. The scientific community generally sees this as a nuclear winter caused by the asteroid impact, because this is what they have been taught to expect. See the Int.iol.co.za news item. See also the next entries.

  • Once Again the Evidence Indicates that the Chicxulub Crater Formed Earlier than the Mass Extinction it is Supoposedly Responsible For. Glass spherules found in a number of layers of sediments from northeast Mexico, Texas, Guatemala, Belize, and Haiti all show signs that Chicxulub is their source. However, the analysis indicates that the impact is about 300,000 years before the mass extinctions marking the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods (K-T boundary). See the Physorg.com news story. [additional sources: Keller, G., et al. (2003) Spherule deposits in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments in Belize and Guatemala. Journal of the Geological Society of London 160(5):783-795, and Harting, M., et al (2002) Multielement geochemical investigations by SRXRF microprobe studies on tectite material; evidence from the NE-Mexican Cretaceous/Tertiary record. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 83(47) Suppl.:F865]. See also the previous and next entries.

  • Again Scientists see Mass Extinctions as Not Extraterrestrial (Meteorite Impact) in Origin. The evidence indicates that the cause of mass extinctions is a process that involves the Earth, not meteorite or asteroid impacts. These scientists, however, try to place blame for the extinctions on volcanic gases. Yet, the selective nature of the extinctions and the fact that not all huge volcanic events are tied to mass extinctions indicates that a more complex situation occurs at such times. This was discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, and on the web page Evolution, Mass Extinctions and Mass Speciations, revealing that the true event involved ionizing radiation and major destabilizing of the planet. See the Physorg.com article.

  • A Crater has been Discovered in Egypt's Western Desert and Dates to 100 Million Years Ago -- A Time When there were No Mass Extinctions. With all the focus on meteor impacts as causes of mass extinctions it would seem that this crater -- Kebira Crater -- would coinside with a mass extinction, but it is not associated with any extinctions. See the NASA news release. It is the second largest crater in the world. The largest crater was most recently found under the Antarctic ice, so this is now the second largest. Meawhile, this Sahara crater is much larger than the crater in Yucatan (Chicxulub) that is the mark left by an asteroid that supposedly did in the dinosaurs and many other species. Yet, no mass extinction is associated with it, when the size of the crater suggests that it should have killed off far more species in a major mass extinction. This is yet another bit of evidence that shows the impact theory of the dinosaur extinctions is flawed. See the Physorg.com story and the Spaceref.com story. See also previous entries.

  • Once again the evidence argues against the proposed impact scenario of the dinosaurs' demise. This time it is the "nuclear winter" scenario that should have made the honey bee extinct, but the honey bee did not become extinct. See the Physorg.com article, and the Scienceblog.com article

  • Once again, the asteroid impact scenario supposedly responsilbe for the dinosaurs' demise is not supported by the evidence. This time the evidence suggests that the dinosaurs where already dying out far before the impact occurred. See the Space.com news release.

  • Once Again the Asteroid Impact Theory Doesn't Hold Water. For one, Chicxulub crater probably did not coincide with the boundary that marks the mass extinction (K/T boundary), and the object was smaller than theorized (120 kilometers in diameter, not the proposed 180 to 300 km) with a date about 300,000 years prior to the boundary. See the Spaceflight.com story.

  • New Study Shows that the Dinosaurs were Becoming Extinct Before the Final Event. See the Discover news story.

  • The Great Mass Extinction at the Confluence of the Permian and Triassic has a Crater. The evidence indicates a central uplift typical of ejection, and the crater seems odd even to the scientists. See the BBC news release.

  • South Africa Reveals Spherules Typical of Impacts or Ejections, predating the Dinosaurs. The fact that these spherules are near the South African Field suggests that they are from a planetary ejection. In fact, they were originally the center of a scientific debate over whether they were the result of an impact or some purely earthbound process. If it was an impact, it was larger than the one that supposedly did in the dinosaurs, but there was no great mass extinction at the time these are dated to (3.2 billion years old -- the Precambrian). This was reported in the journal Geology [Kyte, F.T., et al. (2003) Early Archean spherule beds; chromium isotopes confirm origin through multiple impacts of projectiles of carbonaceous chondrite type. Geology 31(3): 283-286]. See also the Discovery news brief

  • More Trouble for the Impact Theory of the Dinosaur Extinctions. For the second time now there is evidence that plankton had survived the time of the dinosaurs' extinction. This time it comes from near the so-called "impact crater" in Yucatan. Plankton should have been one of the first life forms to die off due to the light-shrouding effects of an impact. See the Nature story, and the news release at Betterhumans.com.

  • Rare Mummy Dinosaur Found. A mummified dinosaur was discovered in Montana. It has 80% of its skin intact, and the contents of its last meal were discernible. Michael J. Everhart of Fort Hays State University in Hays, Kansas, has this to say, "Something had to shut down the normal process of decomposition within just a few days. It's difficult to explain." [Source: "Dear Mummy" Science News, Volume 162, pp. 243-244, October 19, 2002]. As fully supported with a great deal of evidence in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One this is the result of ionizing radiation. Radiation is even used today to preserve foods, especially meat.

  • Another Blow to the Impact Theory of the Dinosaurs' Demise. Impacts are known to cause rings of material that are ejected into orbit causing long-term climate change, but there was no long-term climate change expected of an impact at the time of the extinctions. See the Astronomy.com story.

  • Dinosaur Extinction -- Southern Hemisphere Just as Devastated as Northern Contrary to the Impact Theory. In spite of the present theory that an object impacted the Yucatan Penisula, which would have had mostly effects on the Northern Hemisphere, the Southern Hemisphere shows just as much devastation. This supports the theory proposed on this webpage and in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One. See the story from USA Today or get a copy of the article in Science in the "Indication of Global Deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary by New Zealand Fern Spike." Vivi Vajda, J. Ian Raine, and Christopher J. Hollis Science 2001 (November 23) 294: 1700-1702.

  • Multi-ringed Crater found in the North Sea dates to time of Dinosaur Extinction. Of course scientists are thniking that this is an impact structure, but its multi-ringed nature make it very likely a site of ejection. In fact, if an object impacted in the North Sea, then it should have broken into pieces and been unable to leave a crater below on the seafloor. See the National Geographic news story, and the discussion on Planetary Ejections and Cratering . This makes the fact that the Southern Hemisphere was just as devastated all the more impossible to explain in the framework of the impact theory. Other sources are Space.com, and Scientific American news stories.

  • Quick Recovery follows Dinosaur Extinctions, and Brings Impact Theory into Question. A clay layer marking the dinosaur extinctions was deposited in only 10,000 years. Just above this layer there is the proliferation of new ocean species. Again, the impact scenario does not fit these observations even though the authors claim the helium-3 is extraterrestrial, and they propose a short duration for the K/T event. Meanwhile, there is more helium-3 on Earth than expected from present theoretical perspectives, as discussed in The Vital Vastness -- Volume One, and an impact of the proposed nature should have caused planetary destabilization of a longer duration. [Source: Mukhopadhyay, S., et al.(2001) A Short Duration of the Creatceous-Tertiary Boundary Event: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Helium-3. Science 291:1952-1955].





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