Keywords: quasars, ejection phenomena in galaxies, discordant redshifts, Doppler effect, galactic clusters, intergalactic fields, Halton Arp
As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. Because this book is just published the full scope and references could not be presented. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. The plates that are mentioned in the excerpts are not included, but maybe included at a later time. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.
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The topic of quasars as ejection phenomena from galaxies, and redshifts as intrinsic components of quasars, rather than indicators of distance and velocity, has been controversial since it was proposed three decades ago. In fact, the originator of the theory, Dr. Halton Arp, was basically black-listed and even prevented from using telescope time. Things had gotten so out of hand in the United States, he had to move to Germany to continue his research. For information and links on this topic see the internet resources at the bottom of this page. .
While Dr. Halton Arp presents very convincing evidence of ejection and discordant redshifts, there has been no theory of how the ejection takes place. However, in The Vital Vastness there is extensive evidence that the mechanism is the result of a new model of celestial objects in general. In fact, there is evidence that ejection also takes place on the planets in our solar system. For information on this see Planetary Ejections and Cratering, The Need For a New Model of the Earth -- The Living and Dynamic Earth, and The Similarity of Celestial Objects web pages for more on the Field-dynamical Model, which can produce ejection phenomena. Here are some excerpts from The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos concerning quasars:
The Doppler Effect, described in terms of redshifts, derives from an experiment performed in the 1840s. Christian Doppler staged an experiment with a band of musicians on a moving train, while others with perfect pitch stood by and listened. The notes were higher when the train approached and lower as it departed. Also the faster the train traveled the greater the pitch shifted. This understanding has been applied to the light emitted by objects in the Universe. If the object is moving towards us the spectral lines will be blueshifted, while those moving away are redshifted.
All quasars are redshifted. According to accepted interpretations, quasars are believed to be the fastest and farthest objects. However, a number of observations indicate that this velocity and distance interpretation is flawed. In fact, redshifts have never been fully proven (i.e., quantified) to represent what they are believed to portray.
The Doppler Effect involves both wave and particle viewpoints, and therefore, magnetic fields or electrical discharges also play a role. However, when the magnetic field is considered the effects of boundary conditions (i.e., plasma layers, etc.) are often neglected. Magnetic fields themselves are also usually not considered in order to simplify a hypothesis. In short, the Doppler Effect as it is usually interpreted may be more on the level of science fiction in some cases.
These incomplete perspectives could account for the apparent superluminal (faster than light) motions, and what are called discordant or non-cosmological redshifts in some objects. Helical or "handed" fields or materials (chirowaveguides) are known to create two different redshifts, even when the object and observer are at rest relative to each other. The Field-dynamical Model accelerates and ejects helical plasma layers, and therefore, could easily produce what are called discordant redshifts.
Quasars have been a mystery since their discovery. Immense energy is packed into a relatively small object that may actually be the energy cores of recently born galaxies. Approximately double the size of our solar system, they emit hundreds of times more energy than an entire galaxy. Quasars appear to move at enormous, often superluminal, speeds when the standard interpretation of redshifts is considered. According to relativity theory nothing should travel faster than the speed of light, and therefore, the apparent superluminal -- faster than light -- speeds of some objects alone brings into question the standard interpretation of redshifts.
Meanwhile, quasars appear to be the result of interactions between galaxies. The apparent distance of quasars may be illusionary, and they could be nearby. In fact, a good deal of evidence demonstrates that redshifts cannot be trusted as indicators of distance when it comes to quasars. In Grand Unified Theory most or all radio galaxies are quasars that are not seen pole-on. Therefore, quasars, and at least some galaxies, are revealing a more complete understanding of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their activity, which includes non-cosmological redshifts, and interstellar and intergalactic fields.
The Vital Vastness continues:
Redshifts could be due to the high-velocity helical motion of matter, and therefore, provide evidence that standard interpretations of redshifts are flawed. Theories that galaxies eject luminous material, which causes redshifts of a different character, are more than three decades old, but have never been widely accepted. One astronomer who originated the idea was even ridiculed, and inhibited in his research and publications, and eventually left the United States for Germany in order to continue his work. This was simply because such theories are not conventional. An electromagnetic-field wave "pumping" matter could be responsible for ejection phenomena. This time-varying acceleration effect could produce different redshifts in objects that are near each other, or even within the same object.
According to two recent, independent surveys quasars mostly have redshifts that are between 2 and 3. In the theoretical framework of an expanding universe, redshifts are proportional to the distance from the observer, recessional velocity and age. Therefore, it seems that quasars occurred in an epoch between 1.9 and 3.0 billion years, considering an age for the universe of about 15 billion years. This has left cosmologists with an enigma of why quasars were "born" and flourished in such a small time slot. However, there is no enigma if the redshifts are not what they are purported to be.
Likewise, redshifts come in bunches and are related to each other, which implies a link between galaxies and quasars. The rational conclusion of a number of astronomers seems to be that quasars, peculiar galaxies, and probably even normal galaxies, are related and form some sort of evolutionary chain. One such example is NGC 1275 (also known as 3C 84.0), which is a system that contains objects that appear to have different radial velocities; the different redshifts within this galaxy contradict conventional interpretations.
Quasars are closer to bright galaxies, particularly spiral galaxies, on the average than would occur randomly. Of nearly 500 quasar-galaxy pairs most are lying very close to each other (within 10'). Consider a few examples. The density excess of quasars near one spiral galaxy, NGC 1097, with an inner and outer ring, appears to coincide with the axis as defined by extensive optical jets. One very bright quasar is linked to the spiral galaxy, NGC 4319, by a luminous filament. An optical bridge exists between Mk 205 (z = 0.07) and NGC 4319 (z = 0.0057), though both objects have very different redshifts. The ultraviolet knot and gas show an outward radial velocity relative to the nucleus of NGC 4319. The entire central disk exhibits hydrogen (-alpha) emission lines that suggest shock excitation, and/or explosive depletion of disk gas (i.e., time-varying acceleration). Here is powerful testimony that redshifts are not good indicators of distance, but result from ejection, and involve interactions between objects due to intergalactic fields.
A number of examples are addressed in the book, and the conclusion is that they result from evolutionary changes in quasars and galaxies:
Sb galaxies have the lowest, and Sc galaxies the highest, redshifts. Such an observation reveals an evolutionary shift that also changes redshifts. Both normal and barred spiral galaxies evolve in form from the "early" type, designated Sa, through Sb to, "late" type, Sc. Furthermore, there is a luminosity dependence between supernovas and the redshift of a given galaxy, which also demonstrates the fact that changes in redshift take place along with evolutionary transitions.
High-redshift quasars are more luminous than low-redshift quasars. At high redshift there is a preponderance of flat spectrum radio sources. In conventional theory, the predicted angular size/redshift relationship disagrees with radio observations of distant sources. Again, this indicates redshifts are evolutionary phenomena, or different Field-controlled components, not indicators of distance.
A survey of redshift effects in systems of different scales and levels of hierarchy even reveals a higher strength of redshift within systems than between them. The Local Supercluster is one physical system consisting of a huge flattened cloud of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, including the Milky Way, centered on or near the Virgo Cluster. The strength of redshift is higher within the Local Supercluster than for the Universe as a whole.
In clusters, groups and pairs of galaxies, redshift depends on the type, compactness and status. High redshift is usually connected with features pointing to the youth of a galaxy. Redshift is also a function of the positions in the systems, which indicates strong intergalactic fields that influence redshifts. Likewise, individual galaxies display redshift gradients from their inner to far limits.
Even our own galaxy brings into question the standard interpretation of redshifts.
A redshift field is also found in the plane of the Milky Way with what conventional theory would call an "expansion" (Hubble constant) that is ten times higher than the Universe as a whole. Such a notion seems ridiculous, because constants are supposed to be just that, constant. However, because this effect is stronger within systems than between them, it demonstrates interaction is taking place, not expansion. This is against one of the tenets of the massive black hole and Big Bang scenarios, which require expansion, while the results of reinterpreting redshifts would resolve the missing mass problem.
The so-called missing mass problem involves the fact that what we observe of the Universe cannot be explained by the mass and its gravitational effects of what we observe. That some 99% of the mass is missing if it were to be explained by the effects of gravity. This alone calls for new theories.
Variability poses many severe difficulties for energy generation in quasars or AGN, and therefore, alternate theories are needed (due to the Compton paradox). Either large bulk relativistic motions are present, or the objects showing these effects, nearly all of which are quasars, are much closer than suggested by their redshifts. A number of quasars are associated with nearby bright galaxies, and are so close to the nucleus (within 2') that it cannot be due to chance. Therefore, many of the quasars are nearby, and much is not understood concerning violent ejections in galaxies (especially superluminals). Most astronomers tend not to look at objects independent of redshifts in order to maintain conventional theory, and so, the evidence has been relatively ignored. The conclusion is inevitable: "New physics or even a new approach to cosmology is indicated."
After disclosing the various observations of aligned objects and the filaments connecting them, as well as the problems with the standard interpretations, the book continues:
All of these observations and much more have led to the discordant redshift hypothesis, which has three essential elements. Galaxies are the sites of ejection events involving compact objects. These compact ejections are newly born galaxies, known as protogalaxies. Redshifts are an intrinsic and evolving property of these ejected protogalaxies. The scenario includes some first generation galaxies that eject compact objects of much higher redshift, which are observed principally as quasars. The quasars gradually evolve into increasingly less compact forms. Within this evolution, star formation begins transforming the quasars into galaxies. As this takes place, the ejected objects' redshifts decrease to their appropriate Doppler values, while other physical changes occur. An observational sequence of forms suggests a correlation between compactness and an excess of a non-Doppler redshift component.
Many of the quasar-galaxy associations show filaments -- gaseous streams -- connecting them.
Observations of gaseous or filamentary structures also suggest ejection. The line of quasars west-southwest of M33 is rotated about 20o with respect to a line of hydrogen from M33. Both the line of hydrogen and the quasars appear to have been ejected. In NGC 300 the line of hydrogen is rotated about 25o from the line of quasars. Both M33 and NGC 300 are large spirals. The evidence indicates that a track in the early Universe created a line of objects, and ejection from the formed objects has taken place. Typical of the Field-dynamical Model: "The observations imply instead that material is ejected outward from the nucleus in a fairly well-collimated jet or cone of fairly narrow opening angle."
In the Field-dynamical Model there are fields that are cone- or funnel-shaped that accelerate gas (plasma, etc.) and can also eject objects. In fact, this occurs in a variety of celestial objects.
Numerous observations indicate ejections do take place. Galaxies with exploding or ejecting appearance have the strongest association with radio sources -- the signature of acceleration processes -- many of which are quasars. Brighter galaxies are associated with bright quasars, while faint galaxies are not.
Two of the brightest quasars were found astonishingly close to massive elliptical galaxies in the core of the Virgo Cluster. Elliptical galaxies have a distribution of predominately older stars that form a smooth, ellipsoidal arrangement. They are mostly all bulge that is somewhat flattened, and appear to be the final stages of galaxy evolution. The observations suggest that quasars have been ejected by the most mature galaxies, which are giant spiral and elliptical galaxies. Galaxies evolve into more and more complex forms until they reach the giant spiral and elliptical stage, and then they eject quasars that form into galaxies; an analogy can be drawn with a mature organism giving birth.
High-luminosity quasars are associated with high-mass galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, which indicates a physical interrelationship. Spirals are less massive than elliptical galaxies, and in a bulk sense tend to be companions. Companions and spirals tend to be younger and more active in producing radio ejections and explosions. Characteristics of youth and activity can be empirically linked with the excess redshifts. Again, the evidence suggests that young objects are ejected, and subsequently develop into galaxies who then eject quasars that form into galaxies.
Another example is the disturbed neutral hydrogen in the galaxy NGC 3067 pointing to the quasar 3C 232 with a different redshift. The Field is evident in that the filaments are extremely straight and narrow -- collimated -- with particular characteristics that are not easily explained otherwise. An astronomer comments on this in a way that describes the Field-dynamical Model:
Dr. Halton Arp, the originator of the theory, makes this observation in his book Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies:
"There is the extremely difficult and unsolved problem of inventing a mechanism which can so strongly collimate a beam emerging from the nucleus. There is the extremely difficult problem of pumping the particles in the beam with enough energy to get them traveling so close to the speed of light. Finally, there is the simple but appalling question of what happens when the beam arrives at the distance from the galaxy at which it should have an extended lobe. The basic observation is that the energy has to go from small (cross section) to large, but rather suddenly, not gradually. The hot spots in the extended radio lobes are supposed to be the impact points of the beams on an external medium. But why just at this particular point?" (p.140)
It is obvious from this statement that there is more structure than either conventional or even unconventional hypotheses would dictate. These comments can be explained by a cone- or funnel-shaped field that widens suddenly at a certain distance from the core, as do the Fields of the Field-dynamical Model, producing the extended lobe. Other galaxies also have narrow jets or counterjets that can be explained in this way (M87: 60 & 120 pc jets; and NGC 1097: 200 pc jet). It is along these jets that we find aligned objects and other phenomena that suggest ejection.
The alignment of objects also indicates ejection:
The redshifts of the elliptical galaxies in the line of M87 are different, and they are believed to be among the oldest galaxies known. These galaxies should have been separated from their alignment if the redshifts indicated distance and velocity. The fact that they have not become scattered is an indication that the redshifts are not due to velocity and distance.
If galaxies with a certain redshift are plotted they form one huge filament stretching over more than 40o across the sky. The filament is centered on the bright, relatively nearby Sb spiral, M81. All the brightest, apparent magnitude galaxies in the northern sky show that 13 out of 14 in uncrowded regions have similar lines of high redshift galaxies. This scenario indicates redshifts are not the result of distance, but are due to ejection.
Other indications of ejection are noted. Here are a few selected paragraphs discussing this:
A systematic relationship exists in the redshifts of radio galaxies and spirals. Correlations are observed between redshift and radio emission in galaxies. A survey of radio galaxies in the Coma, Virgo and Hercules Clusters makes it evident that radio galaxies in all these clusters have significantly higher redshifts on the average. This observation provides excellent evidence for the existence of non-cosmological redshifts.
When the central galaxy is reasonably radio-quiet, possibly due to no acceleration processes, then it is the lowest redshift member of the group, and the companions are higher in redshift (as in M31). However, if the largest galaxy is a radio source, then it tends to be the highest redshift in the group (as in M87). For pairs, groups, or clusters, the spirals have systematically higher redshifts whenever galaxies are demonstrably at the same distance (as in the Virgo Cluster). These data suggest that the radio sources, especially spiral and elliptical galaxies, are actively ejecting recently formed galaxies, and radio quiet sources are inactive. A time-varying acceleration process in galaxies ejects quasars that form new galaxies.
A magnetic bridge between two galactic clusters has been discovered. Magnetic fields spanning entire clusters also exist, such as in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. Speculations have been arising that a large-scale field system might exist, but current techniques and instrumentation cannot detect it. However, the observations are clear: "Such alignments clearly suggest ejection along an axis which has a memory."
Some studies show radio sources outside the optical disk, and sources aligned with the nucleus. Other astronomers come to the same conclusion: "We believe that the results summarized here indicate that ejection activity occurs in spiral galaxies." Ejection could be an ongoing process producing new galaxies, because an excess of smaller companion galaxies are near bright spiral companions, and their axes and spiral arms.
The different redshifts for interacting objects must arise because of different times in the creation of matter. A way of approaching the creation of matter in recent epochs is to consider that AGN have a time-varying source of energy. The reverse of a black hole is possible within the framework of physical theory. This "white hole" or something like it, could eject matter (i.e., a core entailing electromagnetic confinement, producing thermonuclear energy; a Field-dynamical Model).
Likewise, quasars are not passive objects, but stir up their environment very fiercely, and eject heavy elements. Observations of one type of quasar (broad-line absorption quasars or BALQSOs) indicate that differences may merely arise because the gas is ejected in a cone that is along our line of sight. With a strong magnetic field controlling charged particle motions, violent activity and energy release from the center, it would lead to the complex absorption profiles noted. Hydrogen (broad-Balmer) lines in Seyfert (spiral) galaxy nuclei vary on a timescale of the order of one year, and in some cases less than a month. Such variability remains controversial, because it does not support the massive black hole scenario. Meanwhile, the consequences of beamed ionizing radiation have not been investigated theoretically, but would explain this variability. All of these observations are what could be expected from the Field-dynamical Model, including the time-varying beamed ionizing radiation down a cone- or funnel-shaped field.
Additional redshifts are noted in those galaxies behind a cluster of galaxies. The distribution of quasars is marked by several peaks, indicating successive waves of formation (i.e., formation is time-varying). An astronomer comments: "Unless the quasar formation has appeared in successive waves, it is very hard to explain this effect in a natural way."
The best evidence for non-cosmological redshifts involves the brightness and uniformity (isotropy) of the X-ray background of quasars, and microwave background of the Universe. The planes of quasars' halos correlate with the supercluster's equatorial plane, showing a ring exists for superclusters, as well. Projected onto a two-dimensional sphere of the Universe, quasars display definite features. The equatorial region is void of quasars, and the 30o- to 40o-latitudes show a greater concentration (see Figure 12). Typical of the Field-dynamical Model, a ring effect and time-varying ejection at the 30o- to 40o-latitudes arise.
There is much more on quasars as ejection phenomena, and other phenomena of galaxies presented in The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos.
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Throughly undermining the conventional theory of quasars is the quasar Cygnus A or 3C405, which is not the proposed billions of (light)years old, but a mere 600 million (light)years.
This NASA site offers a discussion of quasars and the X-ray background. An X-ray observatory noted a bump in X-rays associated with quasars, and that quasars, galaxies and X-rays are linked.
Halton Arp discovered links (filaments and alignments) between quasars and galaxies, and therefore, suggested that quasars are ejected by galaxies and redshifts are not always indicators of distance. Because of the controversial nature of his theories (they are not conventional), he was hindered in his research and eventually left the U.S. to move to Germany where he could do his research. This site offers an abstract of an article that describes some his trials and tribulations, and the outstanding problem facing the conventional theory -- anomalous redshifts.
This web page offers an abstract of an artilce that discusses the large concentration of quasars in the Local Cluster of galaxies. There should not be such concentrations in the Big Bang scenario.
An abstract of an article is provided at this site, and shows that there is evidence that the Universe is not expanding.
The science journal Nature, like many other mainstream science journals, would not publish articles that supported an unconventional theory. Finally, they decided to create a section on hypotheses, and published a work that supports a non-Big Bang scenario and quasars as ejection phenomena.
A clustered distribution of quasars contrasts the Big Bang and an expanding Universe, and supports the non-cosmological redshifts. This site provides an abstract of an article.
Halton Arp was banished for his unorthodox theory, but the evidence still remains to be dealt with.
This site proves an abstract of an article describing the struggle of Halton Arp to present his unconventional theory of quasars as ejection phenomena.
Quasars occur in clusters of specific redshifts, but not at other redshifts, suggesting that quasars are ejected in epochs (time-varying ejection). This web site proves an abstract on an article that discusses this phenomena.
Galaxies that show a physical connection but have different redshifts are discussed in this abstract of an article.
This web page provides an abstract of an article that demonstrates how intolerant scientists can be when information provides evidence of that does not fit preconceived theory.
This web site presents a brief survey of some non-cosmological redshift evidence not often discussed by the astronomical community.
A list of 99 of Dr. Halton Arp writings up to 1995 are provided at this web site
Astronomers have often ignored quasars that have evidence that contradicts standard theory. This is known as the selection effect, which is discussed in this web page. Another web page discusses also discusses the selection effect.
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Richard Michael Pasichnyk
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