This is a live animation of two coronal mass ejections
that took place on 12 October 1999. One also took place
on the east solar limb which is not shown here. Coronal mass
ejections have the greatest effects on the Earth. (NASA photo)

Keywords: solar-terrestrial physics, planetary influences on solar activity, solar neutrinos, sunspots, solar activity, Field-dynamical Planetary Model, Field-dynamical Earth Model

As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is a fully referenced work, and is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. However, these references are not included on this web page, but are included in the book, The Vital Vastness. This book is now published with the full scope and references, and is available for purchase. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered. Excerpts are presented here as indented paragraphs, and those lines appearing with quotes are from some of the cited references.

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There are a number of observations that indicate that sunspots, flares and other solar activity are triggered by remote fields. Surface features, such as coronal transients and magnetic arcs, take place before flares. It is well known that theories suggesting internal forces as responsible are flawed, and flares are best described as an exploding current. Furthermore, flares reappear in essentially the same location, indicating a stability that could not be achieved by internal processes, since the explosive nature of solar erupts would disrupt any uniform flow. In fact, coherent radio emissions were observed from a large sunspot producing bursts from a maser, the radio equivalent of a laser, and electron beams. These require much more stability than would occur from an internal process. Also, white-light flares are produced from energy above the solar surface and flares take place at different depths of the solar surface. The question is where do the remote fields come from? The evidence points to the planets and their solar linkage.

Theories of planetary influences on solar activity have a long history. Again, as is so typical of the current mind-set in the physical sciences, these observations have been attributed to gravitational effects, but gravitational effects are far too weak. Because of this, some scientists have denied any planetary influence exists, but the effect is not gravitational. Rather, the effect is electromagnetic. These influences are the result of a new Earth model, referred to as the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM), and the other planets are similar at this level, referred to as a Field-dynamical Planetary Model. Here are some excerpts from The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos.

Earthly Influences on Solar Activity

This recent photo shows a magnetic "tail" of the Earth
that streams towards the Sun. This hooked-shaped "tail"
of plasma is seen in the top-left. This observation was unexpected
as the magnetosphere is believed to be the interaction between the
solar wind and the Earth's magnetic lines of force. The expected scenario
would be that the solar wind pushes back the magnetic lines of force away
from the Sun, not towards the Sun, as shown here. In actuality it is an observation
of the field of the Earth (FEM) that triggers solar activity. This photo was taken by
the Extreme Ultraviolet imager aboard the spacecraft IMAGE. (NASA photo)

When considering all of the observations, they call for a spiraling electromagnetic helix typical of the Fields on the planets, like the Polar Fields' and their helical auroras. These Fields are accelerated towards the Sun's surface by a coupling with the Interplanetary Magnetic Field; abbreviated IMF (see Figure 4). A solar physicist's comments strongly indicate that the Field-dynamical Model of the planets are at work: "The similarity of auroral particle acceleration to the solar flare case has suggested to several authors that the same acceleration mechanisms may explain both phenomena. It seems likely that more than one acceleration mechanism may be necessary to explain all observations." A planetary correlation with sunspots has been claimed by many scientists throughout the years, but has been denied by others, because no mechanism was known, and gravitational effects are far too weak.

Notwithstanding, a number of observations indicate that the Earth and other planets trigger solar activity. Flares do not form at the brightest x-ray point in sunspots, and other types of solar activity, which indicates that the trigger is far from the site. Also the magnetic fields are continuous, but would not be if they were the result of internal processes. Internal motions would disrupt an internal field. In fact, some flares affect different depths of the solar surface (i.e., corona, chromosphere or photosphere), which is another indication of a remote field.

The Earth's magnetic field undergoes changes of intensity that reflect the magnitude of changes in solar activity before they take place on the Sun. This study took into account eight solar cycles totaling 89 years (1884 to 1972). The observations disclosed that magnetic data for the Earth at sunspot minimum indicates the "depth" of the following maximum.

Furthermore, the majority of solar maximums take place in a period around the vernal equinox. The scientist that conducted the study states: "Of the 21 maximums occurring during the period 1750-1970 thirteen take place during the 4-month period February-May, while only four occur during each of the periods June-September and October-January." Flare formation around the time of the March or vernal equinox unveils the effects of the Earth. After all, months are relative to the Earth's motion around the Sun, not the Sun itself.

These seasonal variations are also noted in naked-eye Oriental sunspot sightings, which show a peak in March, and a secondary peak in April. A third peak is noted around the December solstice. This effect is not random, and it has been suggested that late winter-early spring dust storms obscured sightings in other seasons, bringing about this effect. However, this does not explain the December peak, a time when there were winter thunderstorms, especially during solar maximums. Furthermore, dust storms have more often been an aid, rather than a hindrance, to naked eye viewing of the Sun.

More recent solar events also show these peaks, as well. Major solar activity was noted for June 1988, March 1989, March 1990, March and June 1991, and so on. Some of the strongest solar proton events also occur around these times. The strongest proton events for certain years are 24 September 1978; 13 October 1981; 13 July 1982; 26 April 1984; 13 and 18 March 1989; 13 August 1989; 30 September 1989; 20 October 1989; 1 December 1989; 24 March 1991; 11 June 1991; 8 July 1991; 9 May 1992; 31 October 1991; 21 February 1994; and 21 April 1998 (all are 1,700 pfu @ > 10 MeV or greater). All of these events are within five weeks, some are within a few weeks or days, of the equinoxes or solstices. In fact, the strongest was 24 March 1991, just a few days following the vernal equinox (43,000 pfu @ > 10 MeV). Moreover, in 1991 there were very strong solar activity, solar flares, and geomagnetic storms that revealed the FEM-solar linkage. Other facts confirm the FEM-solar linkage (as will be shown throughout this chapter).

One such fact is the 1913 and 1969 jerks of the geomagnetic field, which are correlated with the 11-year solar cycle. Shifts in the geomagnetic field peak first, then solar activity. Again, this phenomenon indicates that the Earth is responsible for the solar transformations; it is a matter of cause and effect. Further support for this linkage is evident in theories that attribute the polar jerks to both internal and solar variations. Impulses were first attributed to internal processes, but were later correlated to solar activity. The reason they are attributed to both is that FEM and the Sun are a single unit. Polar jerks, reversals and wander will be discussed in section 5.7. The entire solar-FEM linkage can be noted in the fact that solar activity, geomagnetic activity, changes in the length of day (i.e., the Earth's rotation), and various geophysical phenomena, including climate, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions are correlated.

The vernal equinox is a time when the Earth has both poles oriented perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and is moving toward the Sun, making it an ideal time for interaction with the solar wind and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). Geomagnetic activity reaches a maximum around the time of the equinoxes, with the largest variations in spring and fall, as well as daily and annual variations, and this effect is controlled by the Earth's interaction with the IMF.

Due to the interactions between the IMF and geomagnetic field (GMF), there is a twelve-month wave in geomagnetic activity with a maximum at the March (vernal) and September (autumnal) equinoxes. The largest sunspot average effect on the Sun's Northern Hemisphere switched to the largest effect on the Southern Hemisphere in 1913, the year of a polar jerk. This occurred along with the deepest solar activity minimum since 1811. Also, it was a year when solar motion around the center of mass (barycenter) attained a minimum. The conclusion is inescapable: "It seems, however, that these phenomena are the result of a common cause."

One of the most established connections between the Earth and Sun is the close correlations between changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and fluctuations in the coming and going of sunspots. So interconnected are these fields that the polarity of the IMF can be inferred by observations of the Earth's magnetic field. An Earthly influence on solar activity has been commented upon by one scientist who proposes that the GMF could be a strange attractor due to some type of oscillations, and thereby, creates turbulent flow. Others claim that different mechanisms are responsible for an Earthly influence on solar activity.

Observations near the Earth also confirm a solar-FEM linkage in solar activity. The most energetic solar flare phenomena are associated with what are called Ground Level Events (GLE). All GLE between 1942 and 1978 displayed no delay in onset times; they occurred on the Sun and Earth simultaneously. In order to explain this, the IMF must intersect "open field lines connected to Earth." Such events are only partly accelerated on site, but also in the heliosphere, which extends beyond the planets.

It was noted that an active boundary of the IMF (current sheet), and plasma layers in the geomagnetic field (GMF) were surrounding a strong rotation of the GMF that contained compressed and heated solar wind plasma. This observation reveals one of the IMF-GMF interactions that take place. An enhanced field strength and considerable wave activity direction is noted, but not in the direction predicted by the magnetic stresses across the boundary. The source of the energy and momentum were unknown. However, the unknown is the Polar Field of FEM interacting with the IMF, and accelerating the solar wind earthward. This is why solar wind streams display a pronounced local depletion of ion concentrations near the Earth. In contrast, during quiet periods the Earth is one of the main sources of protons.

The Moon, which influences Earthly phenomena (as will be discussed in this chapter), is also observed in solar activity. A lunar effect is indicated in proton counts (1952-1963), and neutron counts (1958-1963) near the Earth (i.e., the lunar mean synodic rotation of 27.3 days, and the synodic month of 29.5 days, which is especially beyond random distribution). There is also a lunar influence on the occurrence of aurora. The Moon influences the dynamics of FEM by triggering particle flow, which in turn may influence the Sun due to the solar-FEM linkage.

Other indications of an Earthly influence on solar activity have been noted. Only 25% of all solar flares cause magnetic disturbances at the Earth (geomagnetic storms). However, as stated, the Earth's magnetic field always reveals solar activity prior to that activity.

Even flare formation and aurora formation are very similar. Hydrogen (-alpha) flares develop in about 20 to 30 minutes, and auroral substorms in about 30 minutes. In x-ray and microwaves the flare occurs in less than a minute, and auroral intensity increases two to three orders of magnitude in about a minute. Both have x-ray emissions and electron spectra that are similar. An astrophysicist makes the inevitable statement: "It is fascinating to infer that an auroral 'curtain' and a flare 'ribbon' are produced by similar processes."

Large-scale fluctuations of the solar wind occur in the Earth's vicinity (1 AU), and display a period of four days. The intermediate-frequency fluctuations occur in periods from approximately nine hours to four days, and low-frequency from about four days to the solar rotational period. In addition, there are periods of three to four days in Interplanetary Magnetic Field phenomena. All these phenomena have a common period of four days.

A number of phenomena on Earth have a period of four days, and this is associated with the time-varying aspects of the Fields. There is a 4-day period in mid-latitude electron zone flow induced by lightning. Thunderstorms increase about four days after cosmic-ray events (e.g., flares). The electrical potential change in the lower troposphere and radioactive elements (radionuclides; e.g., Be7) increase about four days after solar eruptions. Likewise, when the IMF sector structure passes the Earth there is an increase in the size of cyclones (VAI; Vorticity Area Index), which peaks in about four days. Weather events, earthquakes, and other geophysical phenomena also display a 4-day period (this will be discussed). Putting it all into perspective, the life connection of FEM can be seen in the fact that all life on Earth has a "preperception," four days prior to magnetic changes on Earth that are later caused by solar events. To better state this, life on Earth contributes to the functioning of FEM, which in turn influences the Sun, and this then affects FEM.

Further support for this understanding is afforded by observations of the interrelationships between the geomagnetic field (GMF) and the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF). The aurora known as the Theta-arc configuration occurs along a certain structure of the IMF, which is the north-directed IMF (i.e., the y-component). Dynamics of the Earth's polar region, where auroras take place (i.e., polar cusp), are related to IMF solar wind particles when they are injected into the region where the northward IMF and GMF lines merge. The IMF carries shock waves that cause geomagnetic storms, and corresponds with other polar phenomena (such as, the electrostatic potential). The active regions of the IMF, at 0o to 40o latitudes, are ideal for interaction with the Earth's orbital plane, which is inclined 7o to the solar equator. The IMF's annual change form toward or away form the Sun occurs when the heliographic latitude of the Earth is 0o, and this IMF shift depends on which solar pole is tipped toward the Earth. So interconnected are the GMF and IMF that the polarity of the IMF can be deduced from observations of the GMF.

As discussed, the IMF and GMF interact more during the equinoxes, and one pole during the solstice. As a result, there is a maximum in geomagnetic activity during the equinoxes due to the Earth's inclination on it axis relative to the IMF. The strongest activity occurs when open field lines merge, particularly when the IMF is southward with maximums just following the equinoxes on about 5 April and 6 October.

Processes other than the Sun and the IMF are required to accelerate the solar wind in interplanetary space. Not realizing that the Earth's and other planets' Fields influence solar activity and the solar wind, scientists make comments like these: "The nature of the sources of accelerated particles is still unclear." "The nature of the Sun's magnetic field and the processes that cause sunspot-belt flux to erupt as observed remain enigmatic." In contrast, another scientist comments on the Earth's influence: "The phenomena observed indicate that the Earth also apparently repels sunspots to the farther side of the Sun." Other studies also indicate the Earth has an influence on solar activity.

Numerous flare observations confirm that a mechanism(s) outside the Sun triggers flares and sunspots. Studies of flares indicate that there are mechanisms that are overlying the Sun's surface. For example, the charge interchange with atomic and ionized hydrogen at particle sources appears to require two different acceleration mechanisms. The preexisting field on the Sun must be moved "aside" for the emerging flux to develop. Flare loops form through a magnetic reconnection in a local, outwardly extended and external magnetic field. Magnetic disturbances at the Earth and corotating, high-speed streams are so co-fluctuating that the magnetic disturbances have been used to determine solar activity, including seasonal peaks. A team of scientists explain this phenomenon: "That such similar structure is observed in the same phase of different cycles over such a long time (up to tens of years) suggests a quite stable source structure for the geomagnetic disturbances generated by the corotating structure in the solar wind." The Sun and Earth are a single unit when it comes to solar activity.

Aside from solar maximums occurring more around the vernal equinox, and the Earth's magnetic field indicating the depth of the following maximum, there are other connections with FEM. Solar cycles fluctuations in phenomena on Earth and the life upon it are well known. For example, a double solar cycle of 22 years is apparent in the heavy hydrogen (deuterium) to hydrogen (D/H) ratios in fossilized tree wood. This shows that there are cyclic variations in air or water temperature that are in accord with solar cycles. The thickness of annual sediment layers also display a 22-year cycle. There are many similar cyclic correlations that will be discussed in section 5.2, and cannot be explained solely by the relatively minor fluctuations in solar output.

Life and the electrical potential of the Earth vary with solar activity. There is a minimum (1.0 GV; gigavolt) at sunspot minimum, and a maximum (2.7 GV) at solar maximum, which is also reflected in magnetic disturbances on Earth. The air and Earth potentials fluctuate with life. For example, tree potentials (L-fields) shift along with the Earth's magnetic and electric activity, the light-dark cycles, and lunar cycles.

Chemical reactions (Piccardi Tests) on Earth peak first, then solar activity. These chemical reactions are also correlated with magnetic storms, sudden cosmic-ray bombardments, solar flares, and have an annual cycle with a peak, like solar activity, around the March (vernal) equinox. This chemical-reaction effect is also apparent in living things. All life on Earth, even the simplest creatures, such as bacteria, display behavioral and physiological changes four days prior to magnetic disturbances on Earth that are later caused by solar activity. In turn, alternating electromagnetic fields, like those that accompany geomagnetic storms, are biologically active, changing animals (systolic) rhythms, bioelectricity, and blood dynamics.

A highly significant statistical test indicates that the economy (GNP and Price Index), which is actually a measure of the life destroyed, has an influence on solar activity, and not the other way around. Finally, it is a well-known fact that when cycles of the same length here on Earth coincide with solar cycles, it is the Earth's that peaks first. Section 5.2 will illustrate this further.

Other observations bring conformation of this relationship. Polar faculae of the Sun have been observed more since 1951, during minimums. Faculae are produced by solar plasma that is accelerated into the poles of the Sun. The 1950s were a time when the world economy became more industrialized (post-World War II) and solar activity began a new maximum. Since that time these faculae first appeared and continue to reappear. The Sun is maintaining its fusion reactions in response to more losses in the solar wind than previously.

An Earthly influence on sunspots was discussed as far back as 1907, and has continually reappeared in scientific literature since then. The 1907 article was called "An Apparent Influence of the Earth on the Number and Areas of Sunspots in the Cycle 1889-1901." A recent review of these data leads a present-day scientist to conclude that the Earth triggers sunspots.

From section 5.2 the discussion is focused on cycles of solar activity and those of Earthly phenomena, and here is another reference to the GNP:

This relationship is also apparent in the Gross National Product (GNP) and the Wholesale Price Index, both of which are a measure of the life destroyed in the manufacture of goods and the waste generated. A study compared these indexes over a time period from 1889 to 1978 with sunspot cycles, and disclosed the causal factor. In this article, "Sunspots and Cycles: A Test of Causation," in which the authors state:

"In an attempt to identify the limitation of exogeneity testing, we gathered data on a 'classic' question in economics. Is there a causal relationship between sunspots and the business cycle? On the basis of the evidence, we... are forced to conclude that the U.S. economy has a significant impact on the Sun, but that sunspots have no influence on the economy. We were, of course, more than a little surprised to the find that the U.S. economy has any influence on the Sun. However, as [others have] said so well, one 'would have to be rather more pigheaded in order not to have the evidence change his views.' We agree that identifying the linkages constitutes an important topic of future research."

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For a related topic see the web page on cycles

Planetary Influences on Solar Activity

The Earth is not the only planet to display an influence on the formation of sunspots, though it is the most influential. Electron acceleration has been observed near Jupiter, not only along magnetic field lines, but across the regular magnetic field and toward the Sun. In fact, some of these electrons have been noted in the Earth's orbit. An astrophysicist's comment reveals what could be expected of a time-varying accelerator, "the source acts for some days and is then switched off."

This is also true of the other planets, and this is one of the reasons why we observe planetary periods in solar activity. It has been known for a long time that planetary positions that create angles of 0o, 90o, 180o, 270o, or two planets at 180o with the third at 90o affect short-wave radio reception, and radio signals due to increased solar activity. These angles are typical of the dynamics of electric and magnetic field interactions. From 1952 onwards, forecasting based on this understanding alone has been 80% effective.

The Earth in an angular relationship with any of the other planets, such as Venus-Earth configurations, influences the formation of sunspots. Configurations involving Mercury, Earth and Venus show some of the greatest effects. A 110-day cycle of angular acceleration between Venus, Earth and Jupiter is correlated to energetic x-ray bursts. The sources can be noted in the observation that the solar wind is associated with the local depletion of ion concentrations in the Venus and Earth ionospheres.

The four outer, largest planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus) are the most important for determining the position of the Sun, and the center of mass in the Solar System. The three closest (Mercury, Venus and Earth) are the most important for causing the jerk or change of acceleration of the Sun. These influences are the greatest gravitational effects, which are still far too weak to cause the observed shifts in solar activity.

The terms used to describe the angles between the planets are conjunction (0o), square (90o), and opposition (180o), all of which are noted in effects on solar activity. When Venus and Earth are in opposition there are 60% more sunspots than during conjunction. When the Earth, Venus and Jupiter are in conjunction, there are even more sunspots. A study covering a 300-year period disclosed that sunspots increase when Jupiter and Saturn are in conjunction, square and opposition. Uranus and Neptune are in square during maximums, and in conjunction or opposition during minimums. The positions of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Jupiter are correlated with solar proton events. Mercury's revolution around the Sun is also a solar cycle (87.976 days). When Venus, Earth and Jupiter are on the same side of the Sun with Mercury at closest approach (perihelion) the effect doubles. That is, Mercury's orbital period in sunspot data also depends on the phases of Venus, Earth and Jupiter. The conclusions from the data are clear: "There is a close link between various planetary alignments and the dates of sunspot maxima and minima."

The influence is a combination of electromagnetic fields in dynamic interaction that overcome the gravitational (tidal) forces. This is why studies that claim gravitational forces are responsible have been put into the skeptics corner, so to speak, and have somewhat discredited this whole area of study. Gravitational forces are far too weak to be responsible for the effects.

This electromagnetic long-range force is also why there are planetary periods in sunspots. What particularly illustrates this is that Pluto, the farthest (most of the time) and smallest of the planets, has a period that shows up in sunspot data. The influence cannot possibly be gravitational, as a scientist exclaims: "These planetary influences cannot be gravitational, but must be magnetic or electrical in character." Planetary positions have been used to predict solar flares, which is not explainable by gravitational effects. A scientist studying planetary positions and solar activity makes a comment that reflects the limitations of present perspectives: "There was as yet no understanding of why this should be."

The five outer planets' orbital (synodic) periods display close associations with sunspot periods, with the exception of Neptune. A scientist expresses concern over this enigma: "Note that, in spite of its size and great distance from the Sun, Pluto is included as one of the planets involved in a synodic period associated with a sunspot period. This is most surprising. Pluto is the most eccentric of the planets; Neptune, next to Venus, is the least eccentric. In fact, Neptune's orbit is almost exactly circular."

The reason Neptune's synodic period does not show up in sunspot periods is due to the way in which Neptune's magnetic field is offset in relation to the ecliptic plane and the IMF. It is not anywhere near the angular interactions that the other planets have with the IMF. This is also evident in lower radio emissions and an offset auroral zone that rotates with Neptune away from the Sun and the IMF.

Not only do planetary synodic periods correlate with solar activity, but also variations from orbital eccentricity are found in sunspot periods. Conjunctions of Jupiter and the center of mass of the Solar System (barycenter) have been used to predict energetic x-ray flares. Planetary effects on solar activity have been shown in numerous other studies. Many scientists acknowledge that the effect is not gravitational (i.e., tidal).

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Solar Neutrinos

Observations of solar neutrinos confirm both the structure of the Sun, and the influence of planetary Fields on solar activity. Solar neutrinos are subatomic particles produced by the nuclear reactions that take place within the Sun. A direct test of how the Sun produces its luminosity is to observe the quantity of neutrinos that are emitted.

Recent observations show that the Sun is discharging only one-third of the expected number of neutrinos. This greater solar efficiency is in disagreement with the supposedly well-established theory of stellar evolution. Therefore, the Sun's mechanisms are not understood or the classical theory of neutrinos is wrong. Both possibilities are unattractive to conventional theorists. Admittedly, a scientist relates: "Something else in the Sun has to be efficiently transferring energy out of the center." This greater efficiency is also suggested by the long-term (secular) variability of solar activity.

The biggest surprise was that neutrinos fluctuate in relation to the solar cycle. Less neutrinos are emitted during solar maximum, but they should not vary, except on a timescale of billions of years. A neutrino with a large magnetic-moment can interact with strong magnetic fields, causing the spin of the neutrino to flip from left-handed to a right-handed helicity, and thereby, go unobserved in the experiments. That is, the weak interaction coupling (constant) occurs mostly with left-handed spins, and the experiments were designed with this perspective in mind. The spin conversion would have to occur at or above the solar surface, or it would not be correlated to the solar cycle. Therefore, a strong magnetic interaction that originates from outside the Sun is required, because sunspots are bubbles of less dense material coming off the solar surface (e.g., magnetic flux tubes). This sunspot-cycle effect by itself could not bring about the required conditions with only the Sun, and therefore, remote fields are required. The facts at this level also encourage the idea that the remote fields of the planets are involved in solar activity, and this correlates with fluctuations in neutrinos.

A serious shortfall of solar neutrinos was revealed in more recent data from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment or SAGE. The gallium interacts with low-energy neutrinos created in the prime energy producing reactions of the Sun, but their detected levels were far too low. This statement hints at the Earth's influence: "Such a low rate provides strong evidence that electron-neutrinos somehow disappear between their creation and reaching the Earth." Notwithstanding, it has also been suggested that the neutrino shortfall could be the result of an energy source in the Earth's core, as described for FEM.

In fact, the present theory of flare formation relies on magnetic flux tubes beneath the surface, in the photosphere, while no photospheric process can produce the energy required. Before a flare, dramatic, relative motions of sunspots indicate force-free fields that produce a twisting or shear of the magnetic field lines. Force-free and field-aligned currents are essential to flare occurrence. Furthermore, vortex flows are essential for generating field-aligned currents, while electrons carrying the upward field-aligned currents must be streaming down into a deeper layer, the chromosphere. One group of scientists summarizes:

"Considering all the evidence, it seems that a full solution of the solar neutrino puzzle requires something in addition to the hypothesis of neutrino magnetic moments. The primary concern is the possibility that ordinary cosmic rays, by some unknown process, contaminate the 37-Ar data and lead to a correlation with solar activity through the modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Nonetheless, perhaps some other vector could mediate between the cosmic rays and the detector."

Statements like this suggest planetary fields are interacting with the solar surface, causing the spin flip of the neutrino, as well as the other observations. This is especially true of FEM, because the detector is on Earth, and therefore, the spin flip must take place before reaching the Earth's surface. Then again, as indicated by scientists, this could be due to the fact that the Earth has an energy source deep within its interior, as noted with FEM.

The Vital Vastness continues with other observations that confirm the planetary influences on solar activity. The Earth, however, is the most influential of the planets. This can be seen in the history of solar activity and how it fluctuates with the waxing and waning of civilization. As civilizations spread and destroy wilderness, they offset the dynamics of the Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM), and due to its solar linkage triggers solar activity. This is also evident in the Modern Maximum in solar activity, fairly recent solar features, and geophysical effects beginning with the Industrial Revolution, and compounding effects from post-World War II on, when industrialization began a sweeping impact on the biosphere.

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For one example of the fluctuation of solar activity with historical events see the web page In Defense of Nature: The History Nobody Told You About.


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