Keywords: book abstract, physics, natural sciences, physical sciences, new paradigm, prehistory, history, new Earth model, Field-dynamical Earth Model (FEM), interdisciplinary studies, solar influences on weather, lunar influences on weather, ozone, glaciation, glacial advance, solar triggers on earthquakes, lunar triggers on earthquakes, solar triggers on volcanic eruptions, lunar triggers on volcanic eruptions, solar-terrestrial physics, lunar-terrestrial physics, alterations in the length of day, alterations in the Earth's rotation, polar wander, polar reversals, polar jerks
As with all the web pages on the Living Cosmos web site, this web page is only a portion of the factual, empirical support for the ideas presented. This is basically an abstract of the book, The Vital Vastness, which is supported by nearly 5,000 scholarly references. Because this book is published the full scope and references could not be presented due to copyright restrictions. An attempt will be made to address queries, but not all queries can be answered.
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The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos
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What this book will conclusively show is that the Universe is completely life-oriented, even to the extent that life governs the dynamics and stability of most aspects of the physical world. Furthermore, it will complement the public's growing environmental awareness, as it uncovers the essential role of life in protecting our world and our planet. This is not in the usual environmental sense, but one more deeply rooted in the dynamics of the Earth as a planet.
We have all heard how our blind consumer-oriented ways -- now having a global impact -- are leading to an environmental disaster. Yet, there is an event(s) that will stop us before we reach that point, as has taken place a number of times in history. Why would anyone what to know about such a "bubble bursting" perspective? Because problems don't go away by ignoring them, and there is much that can be done to prevent it. In the final analysis, this book will ultimately make the world a better place, reverse the current environmental crisis and world tensions, and raise the consciousness of the Earth's inhabitants about the generally unrealized aspects of the cosmos.
Quantum mechanics and experiments performed within the past few decades have demonstrated that we are not passive spectators, but participators that shape the world around us. The Vital Vastness brings into view a thoroughly interdisciplinary understanding of a world in which we possess the power to shape and control what takes place. Moreover, this manuscript is unconventional, yet highly comprehensive and empirically sound.
As many scientists have commented upon recently, we are on the verge of a scientific revolution, because in a number of situations theoretical perspectives are failing to explain many of the facts. The Vital Vastness will begin the process of transition. Because of its unconventional, even controversial nature, while scholarly, verifiable and testable, it will generate scientific, public and media attention.
Another feature of this book is that it explains why our world is growing in turmoil. Most people want a book that illuminates the reasons behind the increasing natural disasters of greater severity and escalating world tensions. Furthermore, they want a study that addresses the remedies, not just the problems, and The Vital Vastness does. For this reason, as well as its extensive array of subjects, and its unique insights into critical scientific mysteries, it will continue to generate curiosity for many years to come.
The recent explosion of books and other media that expound upon unconventional theories shows that the public is ready for new ideas. Both the scientific and lay public are hungry for new interpretations of the facts. The Vital Vastness will satiate that hunger.
The awe-inspiring revelation throughout is that the cosmos is fundamentally biological, and the Earth is interconnected with other objects in the Universe. By our collective actions, not only does a new social world emerge, but a new physical world materializes. No book like this has ever been published, and the world at large is starving to know how they can really make a difference.
(Note: Although there are a number of topics covered in each Tome, this will be kept brief by discussing only a few examples per Tome.)
The Vital Vastness -- Volume One: The Living Earth
Herein the readers will become acquainted with the objective of the book. The arrangement of the book will be described, as there are a number of unique features. One such unique characteristic of this book is that it can be read by any reader of average intelligence. Scientific terminology is translated into more common language or defined in the text. It is not one of those books that constantly sends readers to their dictionaries or bogs them down with scientific jargon.
The scientific terms are not completely eliminated in some cases, but isolated in parenthesis. This is done so that scientists can examine the ideas in their own language, because many scientific words have no truly definitive common synonym or phrase. Meanwhile, those scientists in another discipline or the average reader will also be able to comprehend the text. In fact, the non-scientist can simply pass over the words arranged this way, making a shortened version that is more comprehensible and accessible.
Tome One examines our planet from a new perspective. Insisting that we live upon a lifeless stone has made us ignore certain ways of interpreting the facts, or in acquiring them to begin with. Observations made by recent satellite surveillance, as well as a fresh perspective for use in deciphering the information obtained in the past, bring about a new understanding of our living planet.
Analogy has been, and will continue to be, a valid criteria for identifying new life forms. Many analogies reveal the ways in which the biosphere behaves like an organism. For example, habitats and their life-forms have characteristics that parallel those of cells and their organelles. This is especially relevant when we consider the fact that organelles were once individual creatures living outside of cells (i.e., as revealed by the endosymbiotic theory), and cells, like habitats, are made up of symbiotic relationships.
Another analogy is that homeostatic mechanisms have to be at work in maintaining ocean salinity, global temperature, atmospheric composition, and more. They would no longer be comfortable for life if we only consider chemical equilibrium and thermodynamics. Homeostasis is a characteristic found only in living things.
On a planetary level, there are vital centers of activity that have organism-like qualities. Like other organisms, the biosphere has a hierarchy of components and processes. When we consider the interrelationships of life on Earth with the Earth as a planet, it must be concluded that there are centers in vital processes typical of living things.
Present models of the Earth leave much to be desired and are, in fact, seriously flawed. Many of the facts recently uncovered, as well as the scientists commenting on inadequate Earth models, have simply been ignored. For example, the dynamo theory is claimed to generate the Earth's magnetic field, but dynamos do not allow for the outright creation of a magnetic field. What dynamos do is reinforce existing fields. So where did the original field come from? A look at recent observations and the deficiencies of present models of the Earth's interior reveals the need for new theories.
For example, the core is more dynamic than proposed. There is a long-overlooked reality about gravity's role in the formation of the Earth, particularly the core. Downward from the Earth's surface, primary differentiation with depth is attenuated by the progressive decline to zero of the force of gravity at the center of the Earth. Normal gravitational force, downwardly directed, is replaced by a reversed upwardly directed force at depths greater than 2,700 kilometers.
This is why research involving deep mines and boreholes has shown different values for gravity with depth. Moreover, those scientists studying the phenomena have called for a new model of the Earth, but long-held theories are not easily dismissed. As a result, the phenomena has been virtually ignored.
Meanwhile, there is more to the story. During the protoplanetary stage there is more than the force of gravity to reckon with. According to the Einstein Equivalence Principle there is also the mechanical forces, which are put on an equal level with the gravitational force. The Earth, whether in the protoplanetary stage or at present, also has a velocity gradient from zero at the core to progressively higher velocities as the surface is reached (particularly along the equatorial bulge).
Likewise, the centrifugal and Coriolis forces are also an aspect of the Earth's structural arrangement, and its earliest differentiation. There is a velocity gradient from near zero along the Earth's axis to progressively higher velocities as the equatorial bulge is reached. The mechanical forces are evident, for one, by the fact that the equatorial bulge has always been perpendicular to the dipole field, even during polar wander and reversal, and cannot be considered to be a hold over from an earlier, faster rotation. Furthermore, the Coriolis force is near zero in regions along the 30o to 40o latitudes, making the mechanical forces more active around these latitudes; a fact that is almost completely ignored.
These mechanical forces are rarely, if ever, contemplated when theories of the Earth's formation and dynamics are envisioned. Yet, there is another factor to ponder. As is typical of solar system formation, the Sun formed into a star before any of the planets began to form. Furthermore, the Sun was and is sending waves of solar plasma along its Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), which would have hydrogen-plasma (magnetohydrodynamic) effects beginning with the protoplanetary nebula. This interrelationship can be seen even today in solar-terrestrial physics, and in the various solar cycles reflected in geological cycles, including the auroras, weather, earthquakes, volcanics, the Chandler (polar) wobble, and polar jerks, wander and reversals, among other things.
When all of these factors are considered, they force a more elaborate Earth model than can be deduced from gravity, geochemistry and chemical thermodynamics alone. For example, the centrifugal force would have aided in the formation of the Earth's dipole field (initially a toroidal field). That is, according to the tenets of ferromagnetism, molecular arrangement evolves symmetrically under the influence of an applied field; the centrifugal force and IMF in combination. This resolves the present problems with the dynamo theory. After all, the dynamo theory is seriously flawed if we merely consider the fact that dynamos only reinforce existing fields, and do not provide for the outright generation of a magnetic field.
Without going into all of the details here, this whole scenario leads to an Earth model that is quite different and more dynamic than the present model. The combination of forces pulled matter away from the core, and as a result, created a "chamber," for want of a better word, with very dense metals, such as iridium, producing a magnetic confinement chamber at the Gutenberg discontinuity (GD), at a depth of about 2,900 kilometers (at a sufficient depth for the gravitational pull to be primarily away from the core). Because the solar wind plasma and the pulsating IMF are time-varying phenomena, the fields that developed became time-varying fields (Faraday's law applies), ideal for accelerating hydrogen plasma into and away from the Earth's core.
This understanding is confirmed further when it is realized that the GD is unlike other discontinuities, which cause seismic waves to speed up from one subdivision to another. Typically, primary or "P" earthquake waves never move faster than they do in the next division as they travel to the core. This discontinuity causes a drastic speed-up, but then the next division, the outer core, the "P" waves slow down. The acceleration experienced makes it the most unique portion of the Earth's interior (13.6 km./sec, or 8.45 mi./sec.). Again, this is what could be expected if the GD were dense material, and the inner core were less dense. It is doubtless that the GD possesses the qualities for high electrical conductivity, ideal for creating a magnetic confinement chamber.
The Sun's IMF and the Earth's dipole field are still interacting, with solar plasma flowing into the polar regions, as noted in the auroras. This hydrogen plasma is accelerated into the Earth's core where hydrogen fusion takes place. According to the Special Theory of Relativity, such fields should exist, and transcend the presently known laws of physics. This explains a number of enigmas, such as the upward flowing polar wind that also creates auroras, the enigmatic theta- arc configuration of some auroras, the helium, nitrogen and oxygen ions observed over the poles, the energy source of the inner Earth, and a myriad of other geologic mysteries.
Furthermore, a property of secondary or "S" earthquake waves is that they can only travel through solids, and the final division, the core, does not transmit "S" waves. While geophysicists claim that this is due to a liquid inner core, this just as effectively can be explained by a core undergoing thermonuclear fusion. Moreover, if the core were liquid or elastic in some way (e.g., molten) then the polar (Chandler) wobble should dissipate, but it is known to be constantly reinstated by some "unknown" mechanism.
In fact, originally it was suggested that the inner core was composed of undifferentiated solar matter. This interpretation was dismissed on the grounds of chemical thermodynamics, where hydrogen would combine with silicon to produce hydrogen silicates. However, if there is the continual replenishing of hydrogen from the solar wind, then this is not a valid conclusion. The Earth has something like a small sun at its core. That may sound too speculative, or even radical, but bear with me as there is a wealth of facts and observations that verify its reality.
Another recent observation that confirms this is that earthquake waves travel faster north-south than east-west. This has left geophysicists baffled by what they consider "outrageous" theories. One geophysicist (at the time he was director of the Seismological Laboratory at CalTech) who conducted the study makes this comment, "[One] possibility is that the core contains a super magnetic field which would slow down seismic waves moving parallel to the equator. But no such magnetic field has ever been detected. Also, it would have to be as strong as magnetic fields in some stars" (New Sci 117(1600):38; 1988).
Certainly that is an adequate description of the model proposed in The Vital Vastness , but conventional training has made this geophysicist resist his own conclusion. He continues by saying, "Its an attractive hypothesis, but theoretically seems implausible." Ironically, this same scientist wrote an article in Science (223:347-354; 1984), titled "The Earth as a Planet: Paradigms and Paradoxes," in which he called for a new Earth model, because paradoxes were seriously bringing into question present-day paradigms. The iron-nickel core theory has no plausible explanation for the observed primary wave behavior in the GD, nor the different north- south/east-west earthquake wave velocities, among other things, but this new model does, which this book brings to light.
As mentioned, the Coriolis force is near zero along the 30o to 40o latitudes. This means that the mechanical forces were more active around these latitudes, as well. As a result, other fields were generated along these mid-latitudes, just like today's major storms, such a hurricanes and typhoons, typically develop along these latitudes, and meteorologists indicate that the Coriolis force is active in their formation. These fields are time- varying and are activated by the polarity of the IMF and the Earth's position in orbit. Along with the polar fields, there are twelve fields, or considering that they are on the exact opposite side of the Earth from each other, they might be considered six fields. Because this Earth model consists of a system of fields, it is referred to as the Field-dynamical Earth Model, abbreviated FEM.
This may sound like a thought experiment, but there is a wealth of observations that confirm that this model is a reality. Ocean currents, higher ocean salinity, high-energy Benthos Boundary currents, storm centers, tektite strewn fields, telluric currents (geoelectric eddies), ionospheric vortices, P-earthquake wave anomalies, gravity anomalies, some of the deepest ocean depths, mysterious lights and sounds, and a myriad of other phenomena are located in these field regions. Roughly equidistant from these fields are the plate boundaries in plate tectonics, as well.
The list of phenomena that confirms the existence of FEM goes on and on. All in all, a new model of the Earth becomes a far superior way of comprehending all of the data, even those "unexplained," anomalous observations. Yet, this Tome is only an introduction to the full scope of evidence.
For some excerpts from this Tome and a brief, partial discussion on the subject see the web page The Need for a New Model of the Earth -- The Living and Dynamic Earth, as well as other web pages at The Living Cosmos home page.
Tome Two: How Small is Small if One Principle Connects it All?
Tome Two demonstrates that small is merely a concept that is used to subdivide what is actually an indivisible whole. Within this Tome, the readers are taken on a journey through the molecular, atomic and subatomic worlds, discovering that life has a profound impact. The real repercussions of this seemingly trivial world are understood by its interconnections with the rest of the cosmos, as is mandated by quantum mechanical theory.
For example, air ions in life-abundant, natural settings are much more plentiful and favorably balanced, leading to beneficial effects on the behavior and health of humans, animals and plants. Other biometeorological influences (the psychobiological effects of weather) are also examined, including their role in the incidence of disease, mental illness, and aggression and violence (even their possible role in war and civil unrest). The fields of FEM ionize the atmosphere as they accelerate ionized particles into the magnetosphere, and the meteorological, biometeorological and geographic evidence reveals that the new model, FEM, is at work.
Another influence plentiful and favorably balanced air ions have in life-abundant situations leads to electric and magnetic stability in the environment. These electric and magnetic forces then stimulate a wealth of life, which in turn generates more electromagnetic energy, and so on. In fact, the full strength of the geomagnetic field came into being at the same time that life became prolific (i.e., the Cambrian). The reinforcing character of this situation brings about general environmental enhancement, which supports the dynamics of FEM.
A number of illustrations of how life stabilizes the microcosm are presented. Consider a few examples. The most life-abundant habitat, the forest, produces superior soils and foods, stores greenhouse gases, prevents erosion, and so on. Food is healthier and more nutrient rich in other life-abundant situations, as well. Life is even unusually capable of transcending much of its own entropy. A number of other discussions about life's role are included.
The fossil record offers a different account than is usually commented upon. There is a great deal of evidence that ionizing radiation (as well as other phenomena generated by an activated FEM), causing genetic mutation, is responsible for evolution (extinction and speciation). A number of interlacing facts and the geographic distribution of fossils (centers of origin and extinction) help to confirm that FEM is a reality.
Throughout this Tome the readers are taken on a voyage that reveals how human participation has changed the natural situation, and what impact that has had, and continues to have, on our lives, and our view of "reality." Furthermore, life displays an astounding characteristic of being an extremely powerful force capable of manifesting order, complexity and stability. Humans are at the controls, particularly at this level, and are capable of transforming our presently accepted view of reality to a far superior form.
For examples of some of the topics covered in this Tome see the web page The Importance of Living Things in Our Everyday World.
Tome Three: Prehistoric Recollections
Evidence of an obscured past prior to the existence of humans is examined in this Tome, with a focus on the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, the time of the dinosaurs' extinction. Theories on the mass extinctions that closed the Cretaceous, as well as other periods of mass extinction, are lacking a full scope when deciphering all of the facts. However, an understanding of the conditions brought about by FEM predicts that these facts should be uncovered, and turns out to be the only theory to encompass all of the evidence.
Though the discussion focuses on the mass extinctions that included the end of the dinosaurs (i.e., the Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary), other periods are also discussed. In the process, and for the first time, an understanding of mass extinctions emerges, including the demise of the dinosaurs, that fits all of the facts, not merely some of them, as is the case with present theories (i.e., bolide impact and volcanic scenarios).
Scientists and the media have made it seem that an asteroid impact is a fact, but there is a great deal of evidence that does not conform to that scenario. Consider one example of why an asteroid or comet impact could not be responsible. Tropical plants with tubers have a very short dormancy period before they must sprout into plants or perish. Yet, the proposed dust and water-vapor cloud of an impact would have prevented this from happening, as it would have blocked sunlight for months, and so these plants should have become extinct. The fossil record shows that these plants were some of the least affected by the events of the period.
In fact, sunlight being blocked for as long a time as would have been caused by an impact, and the accompanying global winter, should have extinguished most life, especially plants. Yet, there were selective extinctions, which mostly involved animals, not many plants. Animals are about ten times more susceptible to ionizing radiation, especially large animals, and calcium-shelled creatures are also more vulnerable, both of which make up those creatures that were the most affected by mass extinction. Furthermore, in accord with FEM, the extinctions occurred along the mid-latitudes, with the tropics, and especially the high latitudes, remaining relatively untouched.
Another problem for the impact theory is that iridium is found globally, and not at the same time everywhere. Meanwhile, iridium should have been found mostly in the region of the impact, and in similarly dated strata. There are a myriad of such contradictions that fly in the face of not only the impact, but also the volcanic, scenarios.
All of the major geological events are accompanied by mass extinctions, and in a number of ways parallel those of other times. FEM's high levels of ionizing radiation at such times leads to global shifts of the Earth's surface (episodes in plate tectonics and changes in sea level), offsets the production of certain elements (isotopes), and highly disturbs the oceans and atmosphere, while bringing about abrupt evolutionary transitions. All major geological and evolutionary transitions reveal a similar scenario, because it is the same factor that is at play, FEM and its effects.
A generally ignored fact is that mass extinctions are always followed by mass speciations, which again reveals genetic mutation is at work. As a result, throughout time life has become more and more complex, stable and diversified. All in all, a large body of evidence opens new vistas into the origin and extinction of species, and geologic history.
For excerpts and a brief, partial discussion of some of this Tome's topics see the web page Dinosaurs Extinctions -- No Asteroid or Comet Impact Here
The Vital Vastness -- Volume Two: The Living Cosmos
Tome Four: In and Beyond The Milky Way: An Exploration of the Universe
Tome Four takes a look at the grander picture of the cosmos. Everything in the Universe displays the structure of the Field-dynamical Model, from comets and planets to galaxies, clusters, and superclusters. All of these objects display dipole magnetic fields, inflowing and outflowing aurora-like phenomena, rings (usually equatorial), and more.
For example, the Earth has the equatorial ring current, the equatorial electrojet, inflowing (solar wind) and outflowing (polar wind) auroras, and more. Likewise, when stars form they have inflowlng and outflowing winds at their poles, and have equatorial rings of matter. Galaxies have "rings" of stars (disks), and jets of inflowing and outflowing matter at their poles. The new model is especially implicated in some cases, as for example, Mercury has no magnetic field, but still has a magnetosphere and aurora; a totally unexpected observation.
The planets in our Solar System may appear, at first glance, to be totally different in some cases. However, a closer examination uncovers a remarkable similarity at a phenomenological level. Many of the enigmas unveiled by the Voyagers, Galileo and other space probes, as well as new instrumentation in astronomy, are surprisingly comprehensible as a result of this understanding. In fact, many of the mysteries that have plagued scientists, in some cases for decades and even centuries, are not only no longer a mystery, but can be predicted from an understanding of the Field-dynamical Model.
Another surprise is the strikingly similar atmospheric dynamics of the planets. Though solar input can vary by as much as a factor of 1,000, all of the cloud-top wind speeds are 100 meters per second. This indicates that atmospheric dynamics go beyond such factors as a planet's size, atmospheric composition, and its distance from the Sun. This is particularly evident in some cases, such as Uranus' east-west winds despite the planet's peculiar orientation.
Many craters are shown to originate from internal processes on the Earth, Moon, and planets. For the Earth, evidence of a recent incident, known as the Tunguska event, displays the internal energy responsible for at least some cratering. The findings overwhelmingly prove that it was not the result of an impact. In fact, the long sought origin of small glassy, metallic objects, known as tektites (and iridium), is finally no longer a mystery. In a similar process on a much larger scale, there is the ejection of objects from galaxies, which is responsible for the fairly recent controversial topic in astronomy involving discordant redshifts in quasars.
A system of fields is uncovered at various levels by noting the dynamics of formation and locations of a myriad of phenomena, including supernovas, pulsars, star formation, planetary system formation, gamma-ray bursters, superluminals, clusters, superclusters, and the large-scale structure of the Universe. Plasma dynamics and astrophysical forces are shown to produce the field-dynamical structure in the formation of planetary systems and stars. Further evidence for this system of fields is unveiled when examining the problems confronting the Big Bang theory. Finally, a fundamentally biological Universe discloses that we need a new mind-set in our examination of the Universe and its origin.
For excerpts and a brief, partial discussion of some of this Tome's topics see the web page The Similarities of Celestial Objects, A Fundamentally Biological Universe, Planetary Ejections and Cratering, and Quasars as Ejection Phenomena, and the Redshift Controversy
Tome Five: The Unity of the Sun, Earth and Moon
Tome Five explores the linkages between the Earth, and the Sun and Moon, and what effects they have had on Earth and human history. Many present enigmas are simply the result of not understanding these linkages. Long-known facts that have revealed correlations without explanations become predictable from the linkages and the new model.
Recent spacecraft observations of the Sun show its structural dynamics, and the process behind solar activity and flare formation. Remote field effects are noted in solar activity, especially coronal mass ejection, flare and sunspot formation. Through the interaction of solar and planetary fields (especially that of the Earth), planetary triggers on solar activity take place, explaining a long known correlation that lacked a mechanism.
Correlations between cyclic phenomena on Earth, and solar and lunar cycles contribute further justification for a solar-lunar-Earth field-systems linkage. The Earthly phenomena comprise biological cycles, socioeconomic cycles, and geophysical cycles, including weather, earthquakes, volcanics, the Chandler (polar) wobble, changes in the length of day, and polar jerks, wander and reversals. The cause of cycles is addressed, and life on Earth as a whole, integrated with FEM, unquestionably plays a significant role.
The full understanding of the Sun-Moon-Earth unity predicts certain outcomes in geologic, natural and human history. The conclusions support the discussions in Tomes Three, Four, Six and Seven. Here and in the following Tomes we are shown just how human participation can influence major events in and beyond the Earth.
For excerpts and a brief, partial discussion of some of the topics in this Tome see the web page The Unity of the Sun, Earth and Moon
The conclusions that materialize from this treatise lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the cosmos, and what constitutes positive participation in the physical world. For example, the Big Bang scenario alone plainly cannot suffice for resolving the origin of the cosmos; there are too many conditions it does not satisfy. The facts show us that there had to have been the curvature of space-time and polarization of the vacuum by primordial fields in order to bring about the orderliness we see. Following this order, induced by a field system and vacuum polarization, more organization on a finer scale was established by the churning created by the Coriolis and centrifugal forces, and plasma dynamics. Magnetic and electric fields then emerged, creating more and more objects due to long-range forces. This is why we are seeing anomalous gravity measurements in experiments, non-gravitational forces, and field-systems linkages in various phenomena.
This scenario also brought about the coupling of the forces represented by the physical constants. The fine tuning of these constants reveals that the whole process was more than a chance phenomena. It has always been claimed that life conforms to the laws of physics, but the opposite is just as valid a conclusion; the laws of physics conform themselves to life. Life is in the cards, so to speak, and it brings stability and even self-awareness to the cosmos (we humans). It seems inescapable to conclude that from the onset the cosmos was purposeful and will continue to be so.
Another indication of this conclusion is that biological, ethical and physical laws all blend together, revealing principles with which we can base our lifestyles upon, if we want a world with peace and plenty. As a result, principles emerge that lead us to a scientific basis for faultless decisionmaking and ethical understanding.
One perspective that is absolutely essential is that we must be more bio-logical (life-oriented) about all of our decisions. Positive influence on the physical world is in our hands! What will be cultivated is a perfected world that touches upon the workings of the entire Universe itself, perfecting it too. Basically, "It's the End of the World as We Know It," only, unlike that statement is normally contended with, we'll all feel fantastic about it!
For excerpts, and a brief, partial discussion of some of the topics in this Tome see the web pages A Fundamentally Biological Universe, and The Importance of Living Things in Our Everyday World
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Richard Michael Pasichnyk
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