Jupiter Compared to Earth (Similarities & Differences)

Embark on a cosmic journey as we juxtapose our home planet with the gas giant planet, Jupiter—two members of our vast solar system revealing how the terrestrial planet and the largest planet align and differ.

Earth: A Closer Look

Earth stands out as the unique, life-supporting third planet from the Sun, with diverse landscapes and ecosystems.

Size and Structure

Earth, our terrestrial planet, is the fifth planet in terms of size within our solar system, featuring a solid surface that supports a vast array of life forms.

Layers of Earth

  • Lithosphere: This solid surface is home to all life, a foundation for our cities, and the land we cultivate.
  • Asthenosphere: A semi-malleable layer, it allows for the dynamic tectonic activity that shapes our planet.
  • Outer Core: The flow of molten metals here generates Earth’s protective magnetic field.
  • Inner Core: A hot, dense metallic sphere, anchoring our planet’s geologic vigor.
layers of the earth
layers of the earth

Atmosphere Composition

The blanket of Earth’s atmosphere is a delicate balance of gases, primarily nitrogen and oxygen, essential for the survival of organisms on Earth.

Atmospheric Layers

  • Troposphere: Here we find the air we breathe and the weather systems that bring both life-giving rains and devastating storms.
  • Stratosphere: It houses the vital ozone layer, our shield against the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation.
  • Mesosphere: A defense layer where most meteors burn up, never reaching the Earth’s surface.
  • Thermosphere: Where the air is rarefied, and the International Space Station orbits.
  • Exosphere: The frontier of Earth’s atmospheric reach, gradually fading into the vacuum of space.

In our next section, we will venture into the realm of Jupiter, exploring its impressive size, thick atmosphere, and how despite being drastically different kinds of planets, Earth and Jupiter share certain surprising similarities.

Jupiter: A Celestial Behemoth

Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun, is not just the largest planet in our solar system, it’s a colossal world that has fascinated mankind for millennia.

Size and Composition

Boasting an equatorial diameter of about 139,820 kilometers (86,881 miles), Jupiter is by far the biggest planet, with a volume that could contain nearly 1,321 Earths.

Unlike Earth, Jupiter does not have a solid surface. Its mass, at approximately 318 times that of Earth, showcases its might, yet it is only one-thousandth the mass of the Sun. The composition of Jupiter is mainly hydrogen (89.8%) and helium (10.2%), with Jupiter’s core possibly harboring heavier elements.

Planets Earth and Jupiter and the Moon
A comparison between the planets Earth and Jupiter and the Moon.

Atmosphere and Climate

Jupiter’s atmosphere is renowned for the Great Red Spot, a giant storm larger than the size of Earth, and its striped appearance.

  • Troposphere: The layer where the Great Red Spot and other storms rage with winds exceeding 620 kilometers per hour (385 miles per hour).
  • Stratosphere: Here, the temperature and composition of gases like ethane and methane create a chemical haze.
  • Thermosphere: It is characterized by extremely high temperatures, far exceeding Earth’s thermosphere.
  • Exosphere: The outermost layer of Jupiter’s atmosphere, where the atmosphere transitions into space.

Jupiter’s gravitational pull is so intense that it significantly affects the orbits of other bodies in the solar system, earning its status as a Jovian planet.

Rings and Moons

Though less conspicuous than Saturn’s, Jupiter’s rings are composed mainly of dust particles from its moons. Speaking of moons, it has 79 confirmed, with four large ones known as the Galilean satellites—discovered by Galileo Galilei—including Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system.

Jupiter continues to intrigue and mystify, with its sheer size, swirling storms, and celestial retinue of moons, compelling us to keep our gazes fixed on the night sky, pondering the wonders of our expansive solar system.

Comparing Earth and Jupiter

Now let’s delve into the comparison between planet Earth, our home, and Jupiter, the gas giant planet that reigns as the largest planet in the solar system.

How Big is Jupiter Compared to Earth?

  • Diameter: Earth’s diameter pales in comparison to Jupiter’s. While Earth has a diameter of about 12,742 kilometers (7,918 miles), Jupiter spans approximately 139,820 kilometers (86,881 miles), making it more than ten times wider than Earth.
  • Mass: Earth’s mass is a mere fraction of Jupiter’s. With Earth weighing in at around six septillion kilograms, Jupiter’s mass is over 300 times Earth’s, despite its composition resulting in a lower density.

composition of Jupiter

Composition Differences

  • Solid Surface: As a terrestrial planet, Earth has a solid surface of rock and metal. Jupiter, on the other hand, does not have a solid surface; as a gas planet and Jovian planet, it is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium.
  • Core: While Earth has a differentiated inner core made of solid iron and nickel, Jupiter’s core is still a subject of study. It may possess a solid core, but it’s enveloped in metallic hydrogen, making it vastly different from Earth’s.

Atmospheric Differences

  • Composition: Earth’s atmosphere is a life-supporting blanket of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). In contrast, Jupiter’s atmosphere is mostly hydrogen (89.8%) with helium (10.2%) and minor components like methane and ammonia.
  • Climate: Earth supports a temperate climate with water cycles. Conversely, Jupiter experiences extreme weather patterns, including the Great Red Spot, a storm larger than Earth.
  • Auroras: Similar to Earth, Jupiter has auroras. However, due to its strong gravitational pull and magnetic field, they are much more powerful and are created by charged particles from the moon, not just the solar wind.

Jupiter gas giant

In summary, although Earth and Jupiter share the same solar system, they are vastly different planets in size, composition, and atmospherics. Earth is a habitable terrestrial planet with a solid surface and a relatively thin atmosphere.

At the same time, Jupiter is a gas-giant planet with no true surface and a thick atmosphere, emphasizing the diversity of worlds orbiting our Sun.


Dive into the fascinating differences between Earth and its giant neighbor in the solar system, Jupiter.

How many Earths can fit in Jupiter?

Around 1,300 Earths could fit inside Jupiter, given its massive volume, a testament to its title as the largest planet in the solar system.

Does Jupiter have a solid core?

Planetary scientists theorize that Jupiter may have a solid core, but it’s surrounded by dense metallic hydrogen, making it quite different from Earth’s solid core.